Skip to main content

Full text of "The Emigrant's Introduction to an Acquaintance with the British American ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 


Z^oo*/ -/ . iH-tf-, 




Cfie Sritii^]^ Smerican Colanitsi, 






S. S» HILL, Esq. 

Be firultfol, and multiply, and reploiish the earth, and subdue it Genesis. 

Hath Britain all the sun that shines ? Day, night, 
Are they not but in Britain ?— Cymbeline. 

loitHnn : 





'y London. 



Of TU 


^ii IkvaxAU Sttempt, 








The principal aim of this Treatise, is to 
assist the investigations of those whose de- 
clining fortunes have suggested the necessity 
of Emigration, or whose brightest prospects at 
home, fall short of the certain results of pru- 
dence and persevering industry in the colonies. 

The plan which has been followed, was 
chosen from a conviction that the character of 
those best adapted and usually most disposed 
to emigrate, had not been sufficiently con- 
sidered by writers on this subject. The most 
popular works have, in general, been made 
too exclusive by their application to one pro- 
vince only, or by their dimensions and high 
price ; or, where these objections do not exist, 
the remarks which they contain, in most in- 
stances, apply to the Emigrant's situation after 


having embarked for the colonies, rather than 
to the situation of persons contemplating, but 
yet, not determined upon emigration. 

There appears, then, to be wanted, some 
practical book of general application ; yet, 
more especially adapted to readers, among 
those classes of the people in the more populous 
districts of the United Eangdom, who would, 
without doubt, in the highest degree benefit 
themselves by removing to the colonies ; and 
a hope is entertained, that the present attempt 
to supply this deficiency, and spread useful 
information, will be the means of inducing 
some persons to think and act more methodi- 
cally and confidently, in matters which perhaps 
deeply concern their future interests ; while 
others, already determined upon Emigrating, 
may be directed to the colony best adapted 
to their particular views. 

There is also a portion of this book, that 
may be found useful to the Magistrates and 
Gentlemen of those districts where the neces- 
sity for Emigration is apparent. If it is not 
too tedious to peruse, it may assist them in 

raMAC£. vii 

affording practical advice to poor or unin- 
stnicted persons under their protection or 

The opinions herein so freely expressed, 
respecting the condition of the American 
Colonies, and the character and prospects of 
the great body of the settlers that inhabit them, 
are the result of nearly twenty years* personal 

The several personages introduced to the 
reader, for the purpose of illustrating the 
writer's remarks, are but such as a traveller 
may encounter in a hundred settleinents in 
Canada. The cursory nature of this under- 
taking would hardly admit, or, at least, does 
not seem to demand, that more identity should 
be given to characters presented with this 
view, than might serve to relieve the tedious- 
ness attendant upon dry details. 




Proposition.— General Causes of Emigration.— Diyision of the 
Snlgect «••• 1 


First Emigration after the Hood.— <k>nfii8ion of Speech. — Divi- 
sion of Manldnd into Tribes.— The Dispersion 5 


Phoenician Colonies : Greek, Boman. — Discorery of America. — 
Settlement of Hayti, Mexico, and Peru. — Governing Prin- 
ciple of the Spanish Adventurers. — ^Their Cruelties.— ^Their 
final Settlement in America.— ^Conjectures concerning the 
Origin of the Native Americans • ; 



first Discoveries of the Bnglish in America.— Sir Walter 
Raleigh's Settlement in Virginia.— 'Failure of liis Schemes.-^ 
Causes thereof.— ^Practical geod of these Expeditions.— 
Raleigh's further Attempts interrupted.— War with the 
Spaniards 95 


Settlement of Virginia.— New England.- The Indians.— Dis- 
orders among the Colonists.— Religious Persecutions.-^ 
Federal Union of the Colonists «• < 38 




Dutdi Encroachmeiito.— League with fhe Indians of the Six 
Nations. — Settlement of Canada by the French. — Nova 
Scotia ceded.— Cape Breton Island discovered by the Fjrench. 
— ^ULen by the English. — French settle in the Island of St 
John.— PcimsylTania settled.— Newfoundland. 66 



Summary of the National Advantages of Extensive Emigration. 73 


Biiiish North America^— Geographical DescriptioD.<— Cfimate. 
-Aborigines.— Division into Provinces. — Political Constitu- 
• tions.— Advantages of a Federal Union. 84 


Lower Canada.— General Description.— Remains of Feudal 
Institutions.— Division.-*St. Lawrence.— Quebec— Falls of 
Jf ontmorency.— •'N^inity of the Great Forest.— ^Three Rivers. 
^Montreal and its Vicinity.— St. Francis.^Sherbrooke.-*- 
Port St. Francis.— Climate.— Govemment.'^Jurisprudence. 
—Revenue. — Commerce. — Manufactures. —Population. — 
Language.— Mixed Character and Origin of the Settlers.- 
It's Disadvantages. — Amusements. — Travelling. — Steam 
Navigation .« HO^ 



Upper Canada. —Geographical Deteiiptloii.— DItMoii.— CU- 
]iiate.---Agrieiiltiire.---8ofl.-— Gaf8rllInelU.•--Gom]Ilaree."-- 
Bcaig]oli.-rStateof£dueatioIi. . • 193 


Origin and Domestic Manners of the Settler8.-*-Their Amose- 
ment8.^Reception of the New Settler.— Canadian Matrons. 
— Superior Intelligence of the Colonists.— Its Causes.— Bapid 
Increase of Popolation '. 147 

Iflnstntions of Colonial Character. ..••• 160 

Illnstrations continued 17g 


ITova Scotia.— Geographical Description.— Climate. — Soil.— 
A.gricuUure. — Fisheries. — Mines. — Halifax. — Government- 
Laws. — Population. — Revenue. — Commerce. — Prevailing 
Language — Goose Shooting. — Cape Breton. — Situation.— 
Population 189 


New Brunswick*— -Situation.— ^}eneralAppearance.—Biveff.F— 
Prfn^pal Towns.— Constitution.— Revenue.— Popnlatioa.- 
Steam NaTigation.— Climate.— Soil 200 


Prince Edward Island. — Situation. — Climate. — Appearance 
from the Sea.— Forests.- Har^urs. — Rlrers.— Constitution. 
—Population. — Language • 206 




^^i^unary of the foregoiiig Bemarks.— BelattoiiB of th« Cdloni^ >. 
to the United States.'^Ties to theMother*Conntr7.*^AdTa]i* 
tages of their present Poirition* •••..« ••••..•• 21 4 


First Thoughts of £migration.-*It8 real Charaeter.— Striking 
jDisproportlon of Married and Un-married Persons at Home, 
—Causes.— 'Consequences.— Who should Emigrate.- Means 
of Settlement.-~Methods ••••• 230 


Who should not emigrate.— Necessity for fall Information.- 
Condition of those who return. •. **** 250 


W|dch Colony should he chosen.— Their compamtiTe Adran- 
tages according to the Emigrant's Views 268 


The Manner of Proceeding.— The hest Season to Embark.— 

Plans upon which Emigration is at present Conducted.— 

Their Inefficiency.— Suggestions for the Institution of other 

Schemes.— Associations.— Whence Information should be 

ought.— juvenile Emigration.— Conclusion • 273 


Regulations of the Goyemment, and the Terms at which the 
Crown">land6 are oflbred fbr Sale 298 

" ■ T. ^ 



^c. ^c. 



Propo8ltion.*-GeBenl Caqms of Bml|[^tion.— DiTiaton of the 


There is do period in history which does not 
afford some memorable incidents concerning the 
migrations of the human race; nor can we compli^n 
that the annals of past ages do not afford materials 
to enable us to trace the advances of man in his 
progress towards peopling the earth. It is neces- 
sary to the design of this general sketch, to take a 
cursory review of the most remarkable removals 
from the earliest records of authentic history, and 
briefly to consider the motives by which mankind 
have been at different times influenced, and the 
effects of their migrations. 

In the causes which have at divers periods led 
men to emigrate, we may easily distinguish three 
ruling principles : the necessity of reducing th^ 


numbers among a crowded people, the gratification 
of ambition, and the love of gain. Under the first 
head may be classed, the dispersion of mankind 
after the confdsion of tenses, as related in the 
sacred writings, with the plantation of those colo- 
nies which the most politic governments hare es- 
tablished, to prevent the too great increase of 
population within their more immediate dominions. 
Under the second may be placed the establishment 
of colonies by the Romans and other warlike na- 
tions, for the aggrandizement and security of their 
conquests. Under the third, those colonies which 
have been planted for the purposes of trade. But, 
whether springing from necessity, and carried on 
under the influence of legislative authority, or ef- 
fected by the conquering arms of a Ceesar, or re- 
sulting from the active enterprise of a commereial 
people ; all have contributed, in their several de- 
grees, to the increase and advantage of the human 
species* By means of colonies, the blessings of 
knowledge and civilization have been disseaoeinated, 
and the arts and sciences, with their happiest effects^ 
progpesmvely extended. 

Bi^t before proceeding to the preliminary histo- 
rical matteiT, and the observations which will arise 
in considering the relation of these events, to the 
subject which will, in the sequel, be the principal 
object of attention, it is proper to remark : — ^that 
the motive for drawing together these apparently 
loose and unconnected events, is to present, at one 
glance, a comprehensive view of the most material 

of ili^ae iraoaai^ioxis in »U «g)e»» ia order to 
nB to judge, with less prejudioe* of the natare of 
eaugratiDn in general, as well as of its particular 
afiplicatioQ to oar owu couditioQ at this time* 

He who contemplates emigrating will, after a 
free mquiry, be eiiabled to judge, with more confi- 
dence, of the true ^nation of the emigrant, after 
his removal from his natire countiy ; and thus majr 
be more easily led to justly weigh the happy results 
mf retirement to some less populous parts of the 
globe, when carried into effect, after a previous 
and full acquaintance with the nature of the under- 

In order to draw the attention of the reader to 
the most striking circumstances connected with this 
important question, and to elucidate, with as much 
clearness as possible, the principles which will be 
herein maintained, the subject has been divided into 
two distinct parts. The first part will contain a 
succinct historical sketch of the most memorable 
occurrences, from the earliest records, until the 
discovery of the great continent of America, with a 
few remarks concerning the objects, to which, after 
thevoyi^s of Columbus, the enterprising spirits 
among the most maritime people were directed; 
concluding with a brief history of our own early 
settlements in the new world. 

The second part will embrace matters of more 
immediate interest. After a few observations upon 
the present state of the population of the British 
isles, and the several plans proposed for relief, . that 

B 2 

4 TFB bmigrakt's intbodvctiok. 

of extensive emigration will be examined and es- 
pecially recommended. A concise description of 
the present condition and resources of the British 
American colonies will then be attempted. This 
will be followed, by a comparative view of the ad- 
vantages of the several existing colonies, in refer- 
ence to individual interests and pursuits, with some 
exposure of the most prevalent errors committed in 
the choice of station'. The subject will then be 
concluded, by a few su^estions for improving 
the plans upon which emigration is at present con- 



First Emigration after the Flood.— Ooniusian of Speech. — DlTisioD 
of Mankind into Tribes.-^The Dispersion. 

It hkB been conjectured, and not without some 
degree of probability, that the world was more 
populous before the flood than at the present day ; 
but in this brief notice concerning the progressive 
increase of the human species, it is not necessary 
to soar into those regions which lie beyond the 
records of authentic history. 

The Mosaic account of the salvation of the residue 
of the human race from the common destruction, is 
too familiar to dwell upon. The second father of 
the great human family, with his sons and his daugh* 
ters, landed on mount Ararat, and received the 
divine command, to increase and multiply. Thence 
they descended into the plain, where they offered 
burnt-offerings, and began to replenish the changed 
world ; which, for its former populous cities and 
its fertile fields, now presented nothing but barren- 
ness, sterility, and desolation ; without, as is com- 
monly supposed, a vestige remaining of those works 
of art, which must have existed at the time it was 
the pleasure of heaven to destroy the whole race of 
mankind, and obliterate every memorial of their past 

The most remarkable difference which we are able 
to discover, between the condition of the inhabitants 

6 . . 


of the ancient and present world, that may be sup- 
posed to effect their increase, is that wonderful 
alteration in the natural constitution of man, by 
which the period of his life has been so much re- 
duced below its former average. That this was not 
all at once effected, is abundantly evident from the 
trritings of the sacred historians; from which we 
learn, that the term of human life did not become 
Contracted to its present standard, until about the 
time of king David. 

As Noah was now six hundred year* old, we need 
not be surprised that we are not expressly informed 
of his having had any post-diluvian offspring, thougil 
he did not die until the 961st year of his age. The 
posterity of his three antediluvian sons continued to 
occupy the plains of Ararat, until increase first sug- 
gested their removal. 

About a century after the descent from the ark, 
the whole progeny of Noah broke up their settle- 
ments, and travelled into a country called Shinar, 
where they continued to dwell, until the miraculous 
intervention of Providence for the formation of 
distinct nations. Before this, their forms of polity 
did not probably allow division ; but the conftision 
of Speech constrained them to separate, and brought 
into active operation the appointed means for the 
first systematical plantations, and the establishment 
of the nations of the earth. 

The dispersion of mankind, which was the im- 
niediate consequence of the confusion of speech, 

is the first, and most memorable occurrence recorded 


coneeming the aetftlement of the earth. It would 
sfbrd natter of iaterest to trace the history of the 
several kmgdoma and states^ during the first ages 
after the ftood^ with the origin of national identity, 
and the diversity in eolonr and fSeature among the 
inhabitants of the worid» especially where the pa- 
triarchal forms of ciyiL government did not retain 
the ascendant, were there any certain guide to the 
tme history of that remote and dark age. 

But there is little to be depended upon, beyond 
what is related in the book of Genesis: ^^so the 
Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the 
&ce of all the earth." From such further scanty 
details as we there find, we may however conclude, 
that the difference of language was by no means 
made so universal as to prevent each individual from 
communicatingwith every other, butthatamiraculous 
change was effected with system and order, design- 
ed to distinguish the several families of the three 
antediluvian sons of Noah, amounting to about 
thirty-five distinct tribes ; each of these probably 
spoke a language unknown to the rest. And thus 
were the human race divided into as many different 
people or nations, and henceforth, spread over the 
whole surface of the habitable globe. 

But it will be more profitable to turn to the 
transactions of the most celebrated nations, at a less 
remote period; those that, by their progress in the 
arts, were enabled to over-run and conquer the bar- 
barous tribes, among whom they planted jcolonies, 
by which mankind were gradually enlightened an(^ 

8 TAB bmiobaht's imtroovctiok. 

refined : and those that, instigated by their mari- 
time genius, visited and colonized the most distant 
countries, and by their commerce introduced indus- 
try and enterprise, civilization and knowledge. 
For these were the means by which the useful arts 
and sciences were spread over the most remote 
regions, subduing the untamed spirits of the sa- 
vages, and fertilizing and peopling the earth, and 
fulfilling the prophecy of the inspired poet : *^ The 
wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad, and 
the desert shall rejoice and blossom as a rose." 



Phoenician Colonies : Greek, Roman.— Disoorery of America.— -Set- 
tlement of Hayti.— SCexico and Peru.— -Ooyernlng Principle of the 
Spanish AdTcnturen.— Their Cruelties.— Their final Setttement 
in America.— Conjectures concerning the Origin of the native 

After the few observations in the foregoing 
Chapter, concerning the transactions of remote 
ages, we may pass to matters of greater interest in 
the history of the progress of man in the dissemina- 
tion of his race — ^the establishment of nations, upon 
principles, and by means, utterly unknown to the 
earlier inhabitants of the world. 

The Phoenicians, a nation of Canaanite descent, 
were the first maritime people of whom we have 
any certain accounts. To their spirit of enterprise 
and adventure is attributed the establishment of the 
first colonies that grew out of the necessities of 
commerce, of wHich there is any record in the pages 
of history. Although they possessed but a narrow 
strip of land along the coast of the Mediterranean 
Sea, their territory included several kingdoms, of 
which Tyre and Sidon became the most famous for 
their grandeur and riches. The most successful 
colony which they founded was that of Carthage, 
which afterwards so long and so gloriously resisted 
the arms of the conquerors of the w<»rld. 



The ancient inhabitants of Greece were first ci- 
vilized by means of Phoenician and Egyptian colo- 
nies. The Phoenicians introduced among them the 
arts of navigation and trade, and the first rudiments 
of that learning in which the Greeks afterwards 
excelled all the nations of the earth ; but the Egyp- 
tians enlightened and polished them by the intro- 
duction of equal laws, and by cultivating their taste 
for philosophy and science. In process of time, the 
descendants of these Greeks, themselves, became 
planters of colonies, by which their dominion, their 
language, and their institutions, extended to Sicily 
and Italy, and spread over a considerable extent of 
the coast of Asia. 

With the colonial settlements of the Romans we 
are necessarily better acquainted than with those of 
the Greeks and Phoenicians. There can be no doubt 
that the populous parts of Italy must, from time 
to time, have felt the burden of excess of popula* 
tion ; yet the establishment of Roman colonies was 
but the secondary result of that inherent love of 
military glory, which stimulated thiswonderfiil peo- 
ple to attempt, and finally enableJthem to achieve, 
the conquest of the greater portion of the then 
known world. As their power increased, commerce 
and the arts were spread throughout the eardi. 
Thus, while we consider their growing territory, as 
r^ards the motives of the conquerors, but as the 
result of a vain ambition, the effects upon the con* 
quered, and the final consequences to mankind, 
cannot be surveyed, without contributing to that 


Stock of infonxtatioa which it has been thought 
necessary to collect, before enteriDg upon the more 
practical matter which the sequel of this imperfect 
sketch will embrace. 

The ambitious and enterprising spirit of the Ro- 
mans did not permit them to remain satisfied with 
the conquest of Italy. They successively carried 
their victorious arms into Spain, Graul, and Britain 
in the West and the North; while in the South 
and the East, both Africa and Asia submitted to the 
disciplined valour of their warlike bands. For the 
better security of the subjugated territories, the 
policy of the victors caused colonies, chiefly of a 
military character, to be established in every pro- 
vince ; so that, in time, their dependence upon the 
mother state, and the commerce and intercourse 
which emanated therefrom, in some degree, refined 
the rude and uncultivated manners of the natives, 
and reconciled them to the government of their 
conquerors. Henceforth, the Romans continued to 
give laws to the world, until the mighty and long* 
cemented empire was dissevered, and finally over- 
thrown, by the sweeping floods of barbarians, which, 
pouring down from the North like a second deluge, 
overwhelmed, the most ancient European kingdoms, 
leaving scarce a trace of former learning and re- 
finement which were now driven from the fairest 
jMurts of the earth. 

It was during the flourishing state of the Roman 
empire that the blessings of civilization, by means 
of colonies, were spread through the vast extent of 


cQuntry which Aat empire eottprehended. It was 
then that our island first emerged from the dark- 
ness of the most savage barbarity ; though the ne- 
cessary withdrawing of the military ccdonies for the 
defence of the more important provinces, before 
much progress had been made, left the natives to 
sink again into the most abject state of wretched- 
ness and contempt : and all that remained of the 
works of art, or the signs of civilization, within this 
island, after the departure of the Romans, were 
probably a few forts and roads, the traces of which, 
in some parts of the country, endure to this day. 

Although the effects, which the establishment of 
Roman colonies produced in those i^es, were great, 
and although the influence of the Roman example 
upon the frame of society, and the connexion of 
parent state and colony, with the modem nations of 
Europe, may be considerable ; yet, as these colonies 
were almost wholly of a military, and not of that 
determinate character which marked the settle- 
ments of even the Greeks and Phoenicians, it is not 
necessary to exceed a few more remarks concerning 

In some of the Roman provinces the lands were 
distributed among the veteran soldiers, worn out in 
the service of their country : in others, the mea- 
sures of the military governments, which were not 
unaccompanied by a tolerant spirit, succeeded in so 
far civilizing the aboriginal inhabitants, that when 
their more ferocious conquerors came to mix with 
the people whom they subdued, their ferocity and 


igtioirttace gradually gsre way to theinflueiiee 6f the 
small remains of refiaement whieh e&tsted ; until a 
snoeesgion of several centnries of comparatiTe re- 
pose allowed time for the revival of learning and 
the arts, and eventually led to the important disco- 
veries which distinguished the latter part of the fif- 
teenth century, when the light of science, whieh had 
not been extinguished, i^in broke forth with 
renewed splendour upon the nations of &e West, 
whidh were awakened from their long night of bar- 
ban^ and ^orance. 

During the ages of darkness which b^nigbted 
mankind, after the overthrow of the Roman power, 
it is sot probable diat any more considerable emi- 
grations were carried on, than natural increase 
would render necessary, to relieve some populous 
and sterile districts from the danger of fiimine and 
endemic disease. The expeditions and conquests of 
the Normans in Gaul, the Saxons and Danes, and 
afterwards the Gallic Normans, in Britain, with 
many others, belong, more properly, to the History 
of Barbarian invasion, and form but a Imk in the 
great chain of savage triumph over the enervated 
and abandoned provinces of Rome. 

In the latter part of the fifteenth century, while 
setence was yet in the dawn of a second day, an 
event took place, which forms a striking felEiture in 
the history of the human race, and which it would 
not be consistent, with- the design of this' sketch, 
to* Ughtiy pass over. A bold and adventurous 
Oenoei^ seaman, possessing genius and enterprise 


which would haTe shone in any age, eonceivad the 
design of reaching the East Indies, by sailiag in a 
westemly direction ; and in the memorable attempt 
discovered a new continent, little inferior in extookt 
to the whole compass of the ancient world, and 
which, is that portion of the globe to which the 
reader's attention will be particularly directed in the 
course of the following inquiries. 

Some conjectures, which had been hazarded, con- 
cerning the proximity of the western coast of 
Europe to the eastern confines of Asia, do not seem 
to have been founded upon any erroneous conception 
of the figure or magnitude of the Earth ; but, rather, 
from the exi^gerated statements of travellers into 
the East, which induced a belief that the coast of 
Asia was not so distant from the western shores of 
Europe, that the navigator should despair of reach- 
ing it in safety. This was the opinion of the best 
cosmogra]Aer8 of the age, who did not believe, that 
the existence of so lai^e an expanse of water was 
consistent with the apparent necessity for a coun- 
terpoise to the great continents of the known world. 

From the time that Columbus first communicated 
his ideas concerning his great scheme, eighteen 
years were suffered to elapse^ in fruitless attempts 
to engage some powerful sovereign to &vour his 
design, before he found himself in a condition to set 
out on his anxiously desired expedition. His first 
appUcation was to his own countrymen, who imme- 
diately rejected his proposals. He then submitted 
his designs to the Eang of Portugal, who was 4i** 


foaded from encouraging the enterprise by some 
eminent philosophers, who had already advised the 
search for a passage to India, by doubling the 
southern point of the Continent of Africa, and 
steering in an opposite direction to that which 
Golumbus recommended. But, although none 
seemed to regard his proposals, yet such convictioti 
had the reasoning of this great man produced in 
the minds of the Portuguese philosophers, that the 
King was advised to privately fit out a vessel ; but 
the navigator, chosen to rob the author of the de- 
sign, of the glory of its accomplishment, wanting 
genius and fortitude, soon gave up the search, as 
dangerous and chimerical. 

As soon as this treacherous scheme became known 
to Ck>lambus, he quitted the court of this perfidious 
monarch, and next applied to the King of Spain. 
At the same time his brother came over to England 
to negociate with king Henry yil.,but he was un- 
fortunately captured by pirates, and detained a pri- 
soner for three years ; notwithstanding, on his ar- 
rival at the court of king Henry, his propositions 
were more favourably received than those of Co' 
lumbus himself had yet been at any other court ; 
uid the future discoverer of America was actually 
on his way to England to attend the monarch in 
person, when Isabella, who shared the crown of 
Spain with king Ferdinand, recalled, and engaged 
te equip him for the expedition. 

Thus was Golumbus at length placed in a condi- 
tion to prosecute his perilous undertaking ; and ac* 


oordingly the expedition, consisting of three ships 
under his conunand, in the year 1492, set sail from 
Spain, in the hope of reaching the eastern coast of 
Asia. The conjectures respecting the necessity for 
the counterpoise of a western continent, were per- 
haps not ill«founded, but the discovery of the new 
world was the result of the active genius and forti- 
tude of Columbus. 

Passing over the several incidents related of this 
interesting voyage, it will be sufficient to observe, 
that after many perils and much opposition from 
the fears and superstitions of his sailors, Columbus 
at length first landed upon an island, which he 
named San-Salvador, and which is one of that range 
since called the Bahamas, now a part of our West 
India possessions. These islands were at that time 
inhabited by a simple people in the very iniancy 
of society, and the narrative of their first inter- 
view with the Europeans is one of those portions 
of history which will be read with undiminished 
interest until the end of time. Leaving San-Salva- 
dor, the expedition steered to the south-west, in 
which direction, according to the best information 
that the Spaniards were able to derive from the na- 
tives, lay those countries which produced the gold 
that was observed to be in common use among them. 
•They next discovered the important island of Hayti, 
so called by the natives, but which they named His- 
paniola. Here the Europeans planted their first 
colony in America, and the chief city which they 
founded they dedicated to St. Domingo. 


At the time Colombus first landed in Hayti, the 
natives, by some accounts, are said to hare amount* 
ed to two millions ; and, as the country abounded 
in gold, great numbers were compelled to labour 
for the colonists ; until, by a series of the most 
rerolting barbarities thai erer disgraced the annals 
of any nation, they were nearly exterminated. 

It was sometime afterwards that the desire of 
re-opening the sources of wealth, which had failed 
upon the destruction of the Indians, first suggested 
to the Spaniards the iniquitous traffic in human 
beings ; and the Africans being found more capable 
than the Americans of enduring the labour of 
mining in a tropical climate, they were imported 
into Hispaniola in great numbers. About this time, 
however, some mines of greater promise began to 
be wrought upon the continent, already discoyered, 
which caused those of Hayti to be neglected ; so 
that the colonists who remained in the island were 
obliged to turn their attention to the cultivation of 
the soil ; and thus, by means of negro slaves, the 
first atten;ipt8 at husbandry were commenced in the 
new world. 

The Spaniards afterwards took possession of 
Mexico and Peru, the only two kingdoms of Ame- 
rica which had attained any degree of civilization. 
But any details concerning dieir conquests and set* 
tlement would not throw much light upon the sys- 
tems of colonization to which these inquiries are 
more piarticularly directed. 

After a single remark concerning, the principles 


Upon which their wars were carried on against the 
natives, this part of the sulgect may be closed by a 
few obserrations upon the state in which the Euro- 
peans found themselyes immediatdy aft^ the es- 
tablishment of their power in the new world. 

The ruling principle with the Spanish adven* 
turers was the desire for the acquisition of gold. 
What were their successes in the attainment of this 
precious metal, may perhaps be gathered firom the 
offer of Atabalipa, the Inca of Peru, for his ran- 
som, after he had been seized and detained a pri* 
soner by the Spaniards. Observing the insatiable 
avarice of the conquerors, notwithstanding the im« 
mense treasure they had acquired by his capture 
and the massacre of his subjects, he voluntarily 
offered, that, on condition of his obtaining hk 
liberty, he would cause to be brought to Pizarro, 
their leader, a sufficient quantity of vessels of gold 
to fill the room in which he was confined, measure^ 
ing 22 feet in length and 16 in breadth, as high ae 
he could reach. The Spaniards consenting to his 
proposal, the monarch issued his orders, and the 
gold flowed in in abundance ; but some jealouaiea 
arising respecting the division of the treasure, 
and some reports of the assembling of forces in a 
remote part of the empire, happening at the same 
time to arrive, the Inca, instead of regaining 
his liberty, was condemned and inhumanly put to 
a violent death. 

The ancient empire of Mexico henceforth became 
a dependent province, and its metropolis the seat of 


& eominercial colonj* The ferocious conquerora 
ezeteiBed every speciefl of barbarity, and the Indians 
were massacred with remorseless cruelty. The po- 
pulation of Mexico, at the time of the Spanish 
inTaBk)B, has been stated at ten millions. Whether 
this be exaggerated, it is however certain, that a 
denseIy*peopled country was quickly depopulated by 
the tyranny and ararice of its new masters, who 
exacted from the inhabitants such painful toil as 
their feeble constitutions could not support. The 
knds were divided between the crown, the grandees 
of Spain, and the companions of Cortes, by whom 
the country was subdued. 

Only one Spaniard was found to take the part of 
the oppressed Indians, Las Casas, who, with his 
&ther, accompanied Columbus on his first voyage. 
He became an ecclesiastic, for the purpose of con- 
verting them to Christianity ; and, from their mild 
dispositions, and the simplidty of their manners, 
he entertained great hopes of success. But although 
he was disappointed in this expectation, his dis* 
interested and humane endeavours raised one 
common feeling throughout Europe, at the enor- 
mities committed in America; so that the court of 
Spain became sensible of the necessity of putting 
a period to the sufierings of the natives, fifteen 
inUlions of whom, according to the uncontradicted 
statement of Las Casas, had been destroyed by 
his countrymen since their first expedition under 

Little more than the shadow of liberty was at 

20 THB bmiobaht's ixtrodoctioh. 

ftrtrt granted them ; bat, through the perseverance 
of Las Casas, and the friends he had raised np 
in their behalf, they gradnally obtained something 
like equal justice. The lands of those that re* 
niained were not restored to them, but the policy 
of the conquerors, in time, allowed the natives 
to gain, by purchase, some districts of their an- 
eient territory. N^ro slaves were now imported 
in great numbers, to supply the loss sustained by 
the destruction of the Indians, and the necessary 
adoption of a more relaxed system; and the Spa- 
niards contented themselves with the labour of the 
slaves and the produce of the mines. 

After the destruction of the ancient Peruvian 
monarchy and the murder of the Inca, with the 
dispersion or massacre of his iSuthful subjects, 
succeeded a series of civil wars among the con- 
querors. Almagro and Pizarro, the chief actors in 
many bloody scenes, severally fell victims to their 
ambition and avarice ; at length, the court of Spaiii 
thought proper to arrest the horrors of these con- 
tests among the colonists; and at the same time, 
to the eternal reproach of Philip IL, who at that 
time sat on the throne, took the most effectual 
measure to prevent any further opposition from the 
Indians, by putting to death all the surviving de- 
scendants of the Incas. 

Thus, both Mexico and Peru, with the islands of 
which the Spaniards possessed themselves, became 
peaceable provinces of the Spanish monarchy. 


Their principal oommeree, and tHeir valde, pfo« 
oeeded from the gold and silver mine» with which 
they abounded ; and to which, it would not per^ 
haps be difficult to trace the causes of the gradual 
decline of the Spanish character among the nations 
of the world. 

From the time of Columbus, until the discoveries 
of the Russians in the reign of Peter the Great, and 
4;he voyages of those celebrated navigators who first 
explored the North Pacific ocean by doubling Cape 
Horn, it had been a question, full of interest, but 
involving much difficulty, to discover how America 
became peopled ; but it is now, it is presumed, al- 
most universally believed, that the first inhabitants 
of that continent passed over the strait which sepa- 
rates it from Asia in the northern hemisphere. But, 
notwithstanding this generally received opinion, it 
may perhaps be asked, why it should be extravagunt 
to conjecture, at least concerning the inhabitants of 
the southern continent, that some Phoenicians, be- 
fore the foundation of the most celebrated ancient 
empires, were driven upon the eastern coast, or 
reached it by design ; and from whom a part, if not 
the whole race of Americans may have descended. 

Herodotus, the Greek historian, unconsciously 
gives us the most consistent and convincing evi- 
dence, that some of the vessels of these famous 
mariners, employed by Necho,* King <rf Egypt, eir- 

* The same with Pharoah Necho of the Scriptures. 


cmBnaYigated the continent of Africa : and althou^ 
the sole chronicler of what has come down to as 
4SQocerning this nolgbty expedition in that age, doea 
hot himself give fall credit to the storj, from the 
^apposed necessity of rejecting a part of the evi* 
dence, namely, that the sun was on their right hand 
wh^i they held a westerly course, instead of on 
Iheir kft; yet, does this very doubt, since our im- 
pT^oved aoquaintanee with die figure of the eartb 
And the path of the sun, become as strong a proof of 
the good faith of the historian, as is the knowledge 
which the Phoenicians acquired, the most indulnljaUe 
testimony of the truth of their report, and of the 
iieality of the expedition. 

Descending the Red Sea, it i^pears they continued 
their course along the coa^ until they doubled the 
Cape of Good Hope, and proceeding northwards, 
entered the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic. 
Now, if we admit, as we must, that such a voyage 
was performed about two thousand years before 
the Europeans took the same route to India, where 
is the difficulty of supposing tluit the navigators 
which accomplished it, might attempt to return by 
retracing their course, or that they ev^ made 
several voyages ? And as we know, that in pasgping 
the tropical latitudes, we are invariably driven 
many degrees west of our proper course, by causes 
not liable to change, it seems probable that the 
Phcenicmns might have fallen in with die most 
eastern extremity of South America, whence a 

TAB MKiBRAxi^B mTAomionoir. 23 

$mgle aoeident, aiooBg a tbonfland to vhich da- 
figatioii is subject, wonld be alone sufficient to 
prevent tbeir return ; amd when tke circumBtanceB 
€f tbe Toyage, which, according to the historian, 
oecopied two or three years, a great part of whadi 
time they passed cm shore, where they planted 
eom and waited the harvest, be considered, it may 
be conjectured, that no second attempt would be 
undertaken by these enterprising mariners, sailing 
either from the Mediterranean or the Red Sea, 
unaccompanied by some of their wives and &milies, 
from whom South America at least, if they did 
indeed reach it, may have been peopled. 

Whatever theory be adopted with regard to the 
settlement of America, the late arctic expedi- 
tions have surprisingly strengthened the opinion, 
that that quarter of the globe is not indebted 
for its whole population to one source of ingress 
alone. The disposition, countenance, figure, and 
other marks which distinguish the people with 
whom the English sailors held intercourse, afford 
convincing proofs, that they are not of the same 
original with the rest of the Americans. At the 
same time it must be confessed, that in spite of the 
varieties of climate, and the consequent diversity 
of manners and figure, with this single e;cception 
of the Esquimaux, the Aborigines throughout Ame- 
rica do not any where exhibit those decided dis- 
tinctions which are apparent upon the continents 
of the old world. But the supposition concerning 

24 TSK SMIOBAirr'fl intbobxtction. 

the Phoenieians does not necessarily imply, that 
the north and the south were settled hy races of 
men as distinct as the Negro and the Siberian ; and 
at least it does not seem improbable,' thatTyrian 
and Tartar blood may mingle in the constitutions of 
the wild men of the American forest. 



fint Discoveries of the Englinh in America.— Sir Walter Raleigh's 
Settlement in Virginia.— Failure of his Schemes. —Causes 
thereof.— Practical good of these Expeditions.— Raleigh's further 
Attempts interrupted.— War with the Spaniards. 

Aftbr the cursory remarks in the preceding 
chapter, concerning the most memorable events in 
the history of the transactions of the first adventurers 
in America, it is time to turn to the records of the 
several casualties which attended the establishment 
of those colonies, which the commercial enterprise, 
the persecuting spirit, or the fanatical zeal of our 
ancestors led them to plant in the western world. 

When all Europe was struck with amazement at 
the romantic adventurers and successes of the 
Spaniards in America, Henry VII., who then sat 
on the throne of England, was no longer able to 
remain a passive spectator of these astonishing 
events ; yet, so feeble were the first efforts of the 
English towards the establishment of colonies, that 
upwards of a century passed away from the time that 
the genius of Columbus conducted the Spaniards to 
the new world, before the people, who were destined 
to spread their language and their laws over the 
whole extent of the vast continent of North America, 
formed any permanent settlement in that country. 

In 1497, only five years after the memorable 

26 THE emigrant's introduction. 

voyage and first discoveries of Columbus, Sebastian 
Cabot, an Englishman by birth, though of Vene- 
tian parents, obtained a commission from Henry 
VII. to search for a north-west passage to India. 
He sailed from Bristol in a vessel furnished by the 
King, and accompanied by several others, fitted out 
by the merchants of that city. Proceeding in a wes- 
terly direction, he first discovered the large island 
now called Newfoundland ; thence he entered the 
gulf of St. Laurence, and before returning to Eng- 
land, sailed along the whole coast of North Ame- 
rica to its souithern extremity. But the English 
did not follow up these discoveries, nor turn to any 
profit the advantages they might thereby have ac- 
quired; and it was not until eighty years after 
Cabot's expedition, that any regular system of cole- 
nization was projected. 

During the inactive and long interval betweeh 
the first discoveries of the English and the forma- 
tioai of a systematic scheme of colonization, the 
spirit of enterprise was not however entirely dor- 
mant. From the passive trade which our merchants 
carried on, and the inconsiderable voyages they at 
first ventured to make, they in time became ac- 
quainted with the principles of commerce and navi- 
gation, gradually extended their intercourse, and 
by their own ships at length traded to the ports of 
the Mediterranean Sea, and even to the southern 
continent of America ; so that, on the accession of 
Elizabeth, the nation was in some degree prepared 
for those vigorous efforts, and those improvements. 

THA emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 27 

which, daring her auspicious reign, extended them- 
selves to every branch of maritime aflairs. 

Queen Elizabeth was not backward in discovering 
the genius of her subjects, which was of a cha- 
racter the most easy to be diverted into those pur- 
suits, which were the best security of her throne. 
She early augmented her navy, and encouraged her 
merchants to engage in the most adventurous and 
profitable branches of commerce. The only navi- 
gator who had yet sailed round the world was 
Magellan, a Portuguese, when Sir Francis Drake, 
about sixty years after the Portuguese expedition, 
not only accomplished that great undertaldng, but 
penetrated to the 42d degree of north latitude, on 
the western coast of America. 

After the voyage of Drake, the English no longer 
considered themselves inferior in nautical skill to 
those nations which had enjoyed the highest reputa- 
tion for daring adventure ; so that, at the com- 
mencement of hostilities against Spain, in the year 
1587, many of the nobility, as well as the most 
eminent leaders of the age, aimed at distinguishing 
themselves in some naval enterprise, or some expe- 
dition i^inst the Spaniards. The plantations in 
America were attacked, and the riches which flowed 
from that source being arrested in their course, 
served to reward the valour of the seamen, and 
augment the wealth and power of a rival nation, 
which, under the rule of a patriotic sovereign, was 
shortly to attain to the first rank among the mari^ 
time powers of Euirope. A less prudent monarch 

c 2 

28 THE emigbakt's intboductiok. 

than Elizabeth, would probably have become in- 
toxicated with glory, upon the splendid achieve- 
ments of his subjects ; and the growing importance 
of her naval strength might have been checked, 
through exerting its efforts before the object was 
worthy to call forth the best energies of the nation. 
But this princess knew as well how to direct the 
enterprising genius of her people, as to gain and 
preserve their affections. 

Such was the turn which the spirit of enterprise 
among the English had taken, before the formidable 
design and equipments of the Spainards for their in- 
tended invasion had threatened to reduce the nation 
to the necessity of returning to its dependence upon 
the see of Rome. No occasion had yet offered to con- 
firm Elizabeth in the judgment she had formed of 
the temper of her subjects, their loyalty and attach- 
ment to her person and government, and their 
determination to exert every effort in support of 
their sovereign, and the reformation of which she 
was the chief patron and support. 

In this disposition, the national ardour could not 
remain restrained ; and, accordingly, we find that 
after the long period of neglect, in following up the 
discoveries of Cabot, the current of adventure now 
once more inclined towards the little known coun- 
tries of the western world ; and some regular plans 
for planting colonies were proposed and patronized 
by persons of the first rank and influence in the 
kingdom. Among the most conspicuous was Sir 
Humphery Gilbert, of Compton, inDevonshire. He 


had already attained distinction by his military 
services ; but, having turned his attention to naval 
affairs, he published a treatise of a tendency to en- 
gage his countrymen in the most adventurous 
undertakings* The Queen soon discovered his 
merit, and selected him as the most proper person 
to form a colonial establishment, and granted him 
letters-patent in the year 1558, with ample powers 
to carry his own plans into immediate execution. 

Upon this commendable and politic proceeding 
of Elizabeth, Sir Humphery found no difficulty in 
engBgilig as mmj associates as his foresiglit enabled 
him to judge commensurate to the several propor- 
tions of the plan for accomplishing his design ; and 
the tinpie at length appeared arrived, when the 
English were to exert their courage and capacity 
in the same hemisphere with their formidable 

Sir Humphery 's small squadron being equipped, 
the first British colonists took leave of the land of 
their nativity, full of the most sanguine expectations ; 
but, in consequence of an encounter with the Spa- 
niards at sea, the English commander was compelled 
to return. A second expedition, which he soon after- 
wards undertook to conduct, was also unsuccessful. 
Having steered directly west, they fell in with New- 
foundland, and accomplished no more than going 
through the empty forn^ality of taking possession of 
the barren coast of that island in their Sovereign's 
name ; while the gallant commander, with two of 
his ships, perished at sea on his return voyage* 

30 THB emigrant's INTRODUCTIOK. 

If we consider the imperfect knowledge of the 
globe which had been attained at that time, we 
shall not be surprised at the adventurers choosing a 
due-westerly course. It was consistent with expe- 
rience to suppose, that by steering in that direction, 
the countries which they might first chance to fall 
in with, would be found similar, in climate and soil, 
to those of the like parallel of latitude in the old 
world. The first mere discoveries of the existence 
of the North America Continent, do not appear to 
have landed upon any part of the coast ; they could 
hot thierefore have obtained a sufi&cient acquaintance 
with the country, to have enabled them to form any 
judgment of the climate of the different degrees of 
latitude throughout the immense extent of country 
of which they had viewed the coast only ; and that, 
at a season when the whole continent below the 
60th degree of north latitude presents the same 
unclouded sky by day, and the same brilliant 
firmament Bt night. 

The famous Sir Walter Raleigh, half-brother to the 
unfortunate Sir Humphrey Gilbert, had been deeply 
engaged in the scheme of plantation, and had 
actually sailed with the expedition which terminated 
so disastrously; but, on account of a pestilential 
disorder which broke out among his men, he had 
been obliged to return. Not discouraged by the 
two attempts which had wasted all his brother's 
fortune, he entered with renewed enthusiasm into 
the schemes which the late commander had origi- 
nated ; and from the well-known character of Raleigh, 

THB emigrant's XMTKOBVCTIOVw 31 

and the degree of &yor which be enjoyed at courts 
great expectations were excited. 

Profiting by the experience of Gilbert, and the 
information which was derived from the Spaniardsi 
who, on their return voyages, were obliged to keep 
the coast of America until they were beyond those 
latitudes where the winds blow continually from the 
east, Raleigh wisely determined to explore the 
lower latitudes; where he entertained hopes that both 
soil and climate would be found more congenial and 
better adapted for the establishment of a colony. 
Having procured a grant as ample as that of his late 
brother, be immediately dispatched two vessels, for 
the sole purpose of making a survey of the coast. 
They approached the continent by way of the West 
India Islands and the Gulf of Florida, and thence 
continued their course northwards; but the ob- 
servations they made were incomplete. Having 
fallen in with a part of the coast of which the 
fertility of the soil and the beauty of the scenery 
were conspicuous, they did not make farther search 
for a fit harbour to afford shelter and protection to 
navigation ; yet the descriptions which they ganr^ of 
the country were so flattering, and so much delighted 
the Queen, that she determined to encourage her 
favourite in his future views; and, in order to sup- 
ply the funds to defray the expences of planting a 
colony, she granted him a patent for licensing the 
vendors of wine throughout the kingdom. She also 
further testified her gratification, by naming the 
country Virginia; thereby, at the same time^ per- 

32 TBB bmigrant's introduction. 

petaating the remembrance of its dkicovery having 
been made in the reign of a virgin queen. 

In I6869 Raleigh sent out seven ships under the 
command of Sir K. Granville, with one hundred men, 
designed to form a coh>ny, the government of which 
was entrusted to Kalph, afterwards to Sir Ralph 
Lane. The first settlement was very injudiciously 
fixed upon an island on the coast, called Roanoke^des- 
titute of harbours, and only inhabited by a few sa- 
vages. The colonists subsisted for some time upon 
the supplies they brought with thein, and chiefly 
occupied themselves in researches, to obtain a more 
perfect knowledge of the surrounding country. But 
when their scanty stock of provisions was exhausted, 
they were reduced to a dependence upon the In- 
dians, who treated them with that derision and 
contempt which their helpless situation inspired. 
The savages had observed the eager desire of the 
English to discover gold and silver mines, and they 
amused them with the most extravagant hopes of 
success. The colonists, on the discovery of this 
deceit, proceeded to open hostilities, and thus de- 
prived themselves of the supplies of provisions 
which they had hitherto received ; and being dis- 
appointed also in the arrival of Granville, who had 
returned to England to obtain further aid, they were 
left to their own resources. They now betook 
themselves to the cultivation of the soil, with a de- 
termination to render themselves independent of 
the precarious Indian supplies, and with the inten- 
tion of remaining in the country ; but their efforts 

THB emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 33 

were still so feeble, that Sir Francis Drake, who 
visited the colony on his return voyage from the 
sack of the Spanish settlements in the West Indies, 
seeing the necessity to which they were reduced, ap- 
propriated a small vessel with provisions for their 
relief; but a storm unfortunately depriving them 
of this resource, by the wreck and loss of the vessel 
and her cargo, they prevailed upon the admiral, who 
fortunately had not sailed, to carry them back to 
their own country. They had scarcely, however, 
departed, when a vessel, dispatched by Raleigh for 
their relief, arrived; but finding the settlement 
broken up, the captain directed his course back to 
England. Soon after this. Sir R. Granville himself 
made his appearance, and not being able to obtain 
any intelligence of the colonists he had left the pre- 
ceding year, and finding the place of their habita- 
tion laid waste^ he returned also ; but deeming it 
prudent to retain possession of the country, he 
landed fifteen men, and furnished them with pro- 
visions for two years; but these were soon over- 
come and massacred by the savages. 

Such was the disastrous result of the first attempt 
of the English to colonize America, although the 
execution of their plans had been entrusted to one 
of the ablest men of the age, and who was altogether 
the best suited, by his genius and capacity, to every 
species of adventurous enterprise. 

The great error which they committed was their 

imitation of the rapacious Spaniards, in their search 

after gold. The prospect, indeed, of amassing sudden 

c 6 


arid great riches, was the exciting cause whi6h urged 
forward every scheme for establishing cdloiiied in 
America. Many accounts of the Spanish expedition 
were at this time published and translated into 
English, and the dangerous contagion was caught but 
too quickly, arid operated with fatal influence, until 
time and reflection taught them the futility of their 

The country where the first English sfettlers estab- 
lished themselves, piossessed a mild and salubrious 
climate, and was enriched with a fertile soil ; sO 
that, notwithstanding the inconvenience of the 
station which they chose for their settlement, had 
the little colony of Roanoke applied their industry 
to the ste&dy pursuit of agriculture, and Avoided 
every cause of misunderstanding with the natives, 
their fboling would have been preserved, and their 
establishment rendered independent. This would 
have allowed time, to coolly deliberate upon the tnost 
advantageous method of turning to profitable ac- 
count, the better knowledge which time, and a 
further survey of the country, would have given 

There were. found in Wingina, (for that is the 
name by which the country was distinguished by its 
aboriginal inhabitants) 9. variety of fruits of spotita- 
neous growth, with many trees and medicinal plants 
of great value in Europe ; and as far as the first ad- 
venturers penetrated into the interior, the country, 
every where, presented the same verdure and beauty. 
The Indians that inhabited it, though familiar with 


war, whick Imd lately raged in its most firi^btful 
formsy and almost reduced the country to a desert, 
were uzider the absolute control of their kings 
and chiefs i and as long as the English maintained 
tlieir own national dignity, they experienced nothing 
bnt kindness from the Americans. 

From this unsuccessful attempt, some prac* 
tical good howerer ,resultiBd : the adrenturers ob^ 
tidned a better knowledge of the capabilities and 
productions of the country^ and m^n's imaginations, 
whM^ had been taught to paidt erery thing on the 
new continent in the colours of romance, were 
sobered by more faithful descriptions of the soil 
and the climate of those parts which had been 
explored, as well as of the character of the native 

The. most memorable consequence of the late ex- 
pedition, was the introduction of tobacco and po- 
tatoes into England/ Tobacco, although before 
bi^ought into other parts of Etirope by the Spani- 
ards, was not used in Eoglsind until the return of 
Sir Ralph Lane, who» througb his constant inter- 
course with the Indians, had acquired their favorite 
faabit of smoking. The practice was readily adopted 
by Raleigh and tke &shionable young men of the 
day. Potatoes were immediately planted by Raleigh 
upon his estates in Ireland, and in that country, it 
is well known, this famous root has become an 
essential article of food. 
The following year, a fourth expedition was fitted 


out by Sir Walter Raleigh, in Airtberance of his ta^ 
Torite scheme of colonizing Virginia. One hundred 
and fifty men were dispatched, under the command 
of John White, who was appointed governor, with 
twelve assistants ; and a charter was now granted, 
distinguishing these rulers of the colony by the 
titles of Governor and Assistants of the City of 
Raleigh, in Virginia. White, however, in a little 
more than a month after his arrival at Roanoke, 
was induced, at the earnest request of the settlers, 
to return to England for a ftirther supply of neces- 
saries, in order to insure the success of the settle- 
ment. On his arrival, he found his country in a 
situation which caused the little colony at Roanoke 
to be totally neglected ; so that the unfortunate 
colonists all perished miserably by famine, or fell 
victims to the unsparing vengeance of the savages. 

The whole kingdom, at this time, resounded with 
the warlike '^note of preparation," and Raleigh was 
deeply engaged in the necessary measures for the 
defence of his sovereign, against the formidable 
power of Philip II. and the projected invasion, 
by means of the celebrated armada. Thus occupied 
with affairs of more immediate interest, as well as 
perhaps from conviction, that the diiBculties were 
too great to be overcome by a single individual, he 
abandoned all thoughts of engaging any further in 
the arduous task of colonizing Virginia, and in 1689 
assigned over his charter, with all the original pri- 
vileges, to Sir Thomas Smith and a company of 

TttB EMlC»RAirT'8 I)rritODtTCTR>N. 37 

merchants of Londcm, reserving to himself, one-fifth 
part of all the gold and silver ore which they should 
find in the country. 

Two several attempts were made by this company 
to regain possession of the Island of Roanoke, bnt 
the settlers were as often cut off by the savins, who 
were now determined to resbt every attempt of the 
English to establish a permanent settlement in their 
country. Yet a few private adventurers still con- 
tinued to visit the coast for the purpose of trafiic; 
and to this the natives did not object. 

38 THB bmigban't's ihtrodvctioh. 


Settlement of Virgiiiia.<-^17ew England.— The Indians.— Disofden 
among the Colonists.'— ^Religious Persecutionii.*— Federal Union of 
the Colonists. 

It was not until after tlie death of Elizabeth 
that the English succeeded in firmly establishing 
themselves in America, although upwards of twenty 
years had elapsed since the grant of the queen to 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and so much activity had from 
time to time been exerted in the attempt. After 
the failure of the expedition under White, the war 
with the Spaniards for some time diverted atten- 
tion from every minor object; but, upon the con- 
clusion of peace, after the accession of James I. the 
colonization of America began once more to engage 
attention, and excite rivalry among the enterprising 
spirits of the age. 

James disregarded the grants of his predecessor, 
which had invested such extraordinary rights in a 
single individual, and by a patent, dated the 10th 
day of April, 1606, incorporated two companies. 
One of these was called the London Adventurers, 
and had libert}'' to plant a colony on any part of the 
coast, between the 31st and 37th degrees of north 
latitude, and to possess the country to the distance 
of fifty miles on either side and as far as one 
hundred miles into the interior. The other was 

THB emigrant's ihtbopuction. 39 

<adled the Pljrmoutli Adventarers, aad was limited 
to the countj*y beti^een the latitudes of 38 and 45 
degrees, with the same extent of territory. 

Instead of bestowing the absolute 'sovereignty, 
which had been invested in Raleigh by Queen Eliza- 
beth, the king, considering the companies more in 
the light of trading associations, reserved to himself 
the right of appointing a council of government, to 
be resident in England, and of nominating a sub- 
ordinate council, to inside in America. He per- 
mitted, that whatever they might export should be 
imported intd England, dut;^ free, for seven years ; 
and he allowed thein to carry on an independent 
commerce with other nations, under a duty on im- 
ports, th^ proceeds of which was to be expended 
for the improvement of the colony. 

The principle of this colonial free trade, at least 
as far as regarded exchanges with the parent state^ 
should never have been departed froln ; but the con- 
tinuance of unrestrained foi^ign intercourse would 
have deprived the mother-country of aU the benefits 
she afterwards enjoyed^ .as these infaint settlements 
began to growinto iihportantand populous provin^es^ 
But more fatal to the. interests of the colonists 
themselves, would have been the long continuance 
of the despotic constitutions which the court, estab* 
lished. The age of enlightened views on the pna* 
ciples of government had not yet arrived, nor was 
the nature or value of colonial possessions very 
clearly understood, or any conception entertained, 
of the future importance of the settlements the 


English were endeavouring to form. The two dis* 
tricts which the grants comprehended were henee- 
forth called North and South Virginia. But it is 
necessary to take a slight review of the transactions 
of each of these companies, within their respective 

In 1606, the same year in which these territories 
were granted, the London company fitted out two 
ships, by which they sent out several gentlemen and 
artizans. By a fortunate accident, the vessels were 
driven northward of Roanoke, and entered the great 
bay of Chesapeake, called Pohawton by the natives* 
Opposite the entrance of this bay the adventurers 
found a river, which they named James's River, in 
honor of the king. Here they built forts, and 
selected an eligible spot, upon a peninsula about 
forty miles from the river's mouth, where they 
erected James Town, which continued to be the 
capital of Virginia for some time. 

At the time the English settled in Virginia, there 
were seven nations of Indians upon the Pohawton, 
and several others in the immediate vicinity, all of 
which have been exterminated by their invaders, or 
by feuds among themselves. They lived in a state 
of nature, scarcely having attained the rudiments of 
any science, or any art, save that of war, which they 
cultivated with great subtlety, and practised upon 
each other with the fury of wild beasts, aided by a 
natural sagacity and enthusiasm, which they emi- 
nently possessed. In civil institutions, they had 
made so little progress, that all the restraint they 

THE ElIiafiiJiT's IKTBODUOnOir. 41 

mnj he said to have borne, was a certain undefined 
obedience to their kings or cliie&» especially during 
war. The authority of their kings was hereditary, 
and descended, whether to male or female, in a 
right line. 

As to their religion, they entertained a super- 
stitions veneration for their priests, who practised 
npou their credulity by pretended miracles, and by 
damning anathemas against unbelieyers ; and they 
worshipped idols, and sacrificed human beings. Yet, 
amidst these shocking observances, an early writer 
has given us the following confession of faith, 
gathered from one of the most enlightened of the 
Indians. ^' That they believed God was universally 
beneficent : that his dwelling was in heaven above, 
and that the influence of his goodness reached to 
the earth beneath : that he was incomprehensible in 
his excellence, and enjoyed all possible felicity : 
that his duration was eternal, his perfection bound- 
less ; and that he possessed everlasting tranquillity 
and ease." But the Indian being asked, how he 
justified the worship of an evil as well as a good 
spirit, he replied, ^^ Tis true, that God is the giver 
of all good things, but that they flow naturally and 
promiscuously from him : that they are showered 
down upon all men indiffertotly, without distinc- 
tion : that God does not trouble himself with the 
impertinent affairs of men, nor is concerned .at what 
they do, but leaves them to make the most of their 
own free will, and to .secure as many as they can of 
the good things that flow from him ; therefore, it 


was to no purpose either to fear o^ worship him. 
Bat, on the contrary, if they did not pacify the evil 
spirit, he Would min their health, peace, and plenty, 
he being always visiting them in their air, thunder- 
storms, &c." The Indian who pronounced this 
creed, appeared to entertain very proper notions 
concerning the idol in their temple, as well as of the 
juggling of the priests. The priests themselves in- 
culcated the doctrine and belief in a future state of 
retribution ; and they promised to believers all the 
sensual joys of Mahomet's paradise, with eternal 
spring, and every thing they most coveted in the 
greatest perfection ; but, to the unbelievers and the 
pro&ne, they allotted lakes of fire and torments. 

Men in this rude state of society could not have 
made any progress in literature ; yet, they commu- 
nicated their ideas to each other by a sort of hiero* 
glyphics. They divided their years by snows, or 
winters, and the seasons, by the progress and decay 
of vegetation, and they reckoned dieir months by 
the changes of the moon. Of their domestic man- 
ners, there are many remarkable customs recorded, 
one or two of which should not be passed over« 
As soon as a child was bom, they tied it, in its state 
of nudity, against a board, where it remained until 
the texture of its bones was rendered firm, and its . 
joints were well knit. Whether this be the cause, the 
men are well proportioned, and the women are deli* 
cately formed, and sometimes very handsome, while 
deformity is rare in either sex. They ate of some of 
the most noxious animals, and they drank wal^. 

THfi BMIGR ant's IimOBITCTlON. 43 

They knew not the use of iron ; for the uses to which 
we apply knives and axes, they employed shells, 
reeds, and hard stones. They obtained fire, by 
rapidly turning the end of a piece of stick upon 
sound and dry wood. To the European vices of 
drunkenness and fraud they were strangers ; so that, 
if they had fewer virtues, they had not so many 
vices, as the white men who invaded and subdued 
their country. 

A considerable time necessarily elapsed before 
there could be any great natural increase in the. 
number of the colonists, as but few women accom- 
panied the first adventurers. *^The planters," to 
use the words of an old author, '^ shifted as well as 
fliey could, by buying their wives of the Indians." 
At length, the reports of those who were comfort- 
ably settled caused the introducticm of entire fami- 
lies, and those in authority at home, sensible of the 
necessity of proportioning the sexes, in order to 
firmly establish, and insure the prosperity of the 
settlements, encouraged young women of good cha- 
raet^ to emirate upon the same principle which 
the English gotemment have now wisely adopted 
for the benefit of the Australian colonies with the 
like benevolent views. So tardy, however, was die 
progress that the Virginian colony still made, not- 
withstanding the number of those who left England 
for conscience sake, or were driven from its shores 
by the turbulence of the times, during the reigns of 
Charles I. and Charles II. and the intermediate 
space between the sovereignty of these two monarchs, 


that one kundred years after the date of the pateitt 
of the first incorporated ooatpany^ by King James I. 
in 1606, the population did not exceed 70,0()0 eiouls* 

The form of government which the London Com- 
pany established in their territory, consisted of a 
president and oouncil of twelve, with a house of re- 
presentatives. Charles I., who dissolved this associ- 
ation, still continued the form of g6vemm,ent, in a 
governor and council, and an assembly .consisting of 
two representatives for each county, and one for 
James Town, fifty-seven in all. The governor and 
council formed a general court, which took cog- 
nizance of all matters of dispute whatsoever. 

The south Virginian colony experienced .many 
vicissitudes. They did not greatly profit by the ex- 
perience of the setders at Roanoke. Instead of ap- 
plying their industry to the cultivation of the. soil, 
the most legitimate means of rendering themselves 
independent, the original desire of amassing sudden 
and great riches still kept possession of their imagi- 
natiohs ; and they persisted in engaging in the most 
irregular and unprofitable occupations, until want, 
disease, wars with the natives, and animosities 
among themselves, followed, as the natural conse- 
quence of indulging in these idle dreams ; so that 
the records of the colony, through a long period of 
its history, relate a series of distressing- events, 
instead of the pleasing results of progressive im- 

After several weak and ill-directed attempts of 
the Plymouth Company to colonize the country, at 

THB emiorant's intboduotiok. 46 


that time called North Virginia, the c(»8t was, for 
seyeral years, only visited by a few adventurers, 
who came to traffic with the Indians during the 
summer months. At length, in the year 1621, a 
Mr. Robinson, an Independent, and some others 
who had been persecuted in England, and taken 
refage in Hollsmd, determined upon founding a 
church for their sect in the New World. In order 
to accomplish this, they purchased a tract of country 
from the English North Virginian Company, and 
immediately proceeded to put their plans into ex- 
ecution. The party consisted of forty-one families, in 
all one hundred and twenty persons ; but the season 
at which they landed was unfavorable for the com- 
mencement of their operations. Many,* impressed 
with a sense of their sad condition, gave themselves 
up to despair ; and nearly one half perished from 
the combined effects of cold, hunger, and disappoint- 
ment. The more hardy, lingered through a mise- 
rable winter, and when the spring came, so weary 
were they with what they bad undergone, that they 
were only preserved from perishing by the unex- 
pected arrival of sixty warriors of the savages, who, 
headed by a chief, came opportunely and generously 
to their relief. 

Among these magnanimous warriors there was 
one who had had a great deal of communication with 
the English traders during their transitory visits, 
and had acquired some knowledge of their language. 
Him they selected, and left behind them, to in- 
struct the settlers in the method of cultivating the 

46 THE emigrant's introduction. 

maize, and in the Indian manner of fishing ; an un- 
doubted proof of the natural disposition of the 
natives to cherish a kind understanding with the 
Europeans, but which, to the shame of the English, 
forms a strong contrast with the cruelty and injus- 
tice of their proceedings. For, as soon as the colo- 
nists became confident in the strength of their 
numbers, and the superior power of their arms, 
they attacked and harassed the natives, until whole 
tribes were either exterminated, or driven beyond 
the precincts of the usurped territory, to which they 
never returned, but to wage desultory warfare with 
the descendants of the first settlers in that part of 

Encouraged by the succour and friendly inter- 
course of the Indians, the colonists began to enter- 
tain fresh hopes of success, and commenced the 
formation of a settlement, which was speedily in 
progress. The first permanent establishment was 
fixed, and the first place of worship was erected, 
in Massachusets Bay, in lat. 4P 68' N., and Ion. 
70® 10' W., and was called Plymouth. 

The members of the new colony looked forward 
with anxious expectation to the arrival of some more 
of their countrymen and sect, whom they expected 
from England, with a supply of provisions, seeds, 
domestic animals, and such other assistance as they 
needed. The further persecutions of the puritans 
contributed to hasten this relief; so that in 1630, 
but nine years after the arrival of Robinson and his 
companions, the numbers were so much increased. 


that the settlers were obliged to form other estab- 
lishments, of which Boston became the principal. 

Among these early colonists were persons of 
every- station, who had embraced the puritan doc- 
trines. There were even associated with them 
several of high rank, who had taken the precaution 
to secure themselves an asylum in the new American 
settlements, and caused improvements to be made, 
with a determination to retire to their transatlantic 
possessions, should their efforts in the cause they 
espoused prove unsuccessful. 

The first skiers in Massachusets Bay, unlike 
the South Virginians, had wholly neglected to estab- 
lish any definite form of government ; so that men 
lived for some time without the necessary restraints 
of atrthori<7 and of laws. But as the charter left them 
at liberty to choose and adjust their own civil insti- 
tutions, as soon as it was found imperative that some 
form of polity should be thought upon, they unani- 
mously agreed to adopt the republican forms ; yet 
many would not be persuaded that any thing but a 
pure democracy could be entitled to the appellation 
of a republic, or be worthy of men in a state of 
absolute freedom and equality. At length, the 
necessity for the security of individual possessions 
became too apparent to allow them to remain any 
longer in their unrestrained, and primitive, and as 
they vainly imagined, paradisiacal state of sim- 
plicity ; and the forms of their constitution being 
settled, they set about framing such laws as they 

48 THE emigrant's introductiok. 

thought suitable to their condition, and the state of 
society into which chance had thrown them. 

The laws and institutions which they established 
are so truly characteristic, that a brief notice of 
them seems necessary. Ordinary transgressions 
against the decencies of society were made capital 
offences. Even children were punished with death, 
for cursing or striking their parents. All persons 
detected of lying, or drunkenness, or dancing, were 
ordered to be publicly whipped* The worship of 
images was forbidden on pain of death. Catholic 
priests were to suffer death if they returned to 
the colony after having been banished; and also 
quakers, after haying been whipped, branded, and 
expelled. None, but a member of their com- 
munion, could hold any share in the govern- 
ment, although they themselves had quitted their 
country rather than yield to the authority of 
the church establishment in England* Those who 
denied the right of the magistrates to interfere in 
matters of religion, were considered blasphemers, 
and treated with the utmost rigour. Such, indeed, 
was the rage for persecution among the colonists, 
that it was even attempted bylaw to put a final end 
to these differences of opinion, by inflicting death 
upon all who should dissent from the doctrines of 
their church. Those who were suspected of enter- 
taining tolerant opinions, were become so much the 
objects of persecution, that many of them fled 
to the woods, and thus become the means of spreads. 


ing out tlie bounds of the settlement in several 

The public records of the colony afford many 
other proofs of the state of degradation into which 
the minds of these unfortunate enthusiasts had 
fidlen. Matters, which in no i^e had been 
considered of importance, were magnified into 
fundamental doctrines, and points of religion; 
and the salvation of the soul was to be gained or 
lost according as men might credit or disbelieve 
the frightful dogmas of their ignorant preachers. 
Even the quakers, who from their tried patience in 
enduring the tyranny of their persecutors, must be 
acknowledged to be the most inoffensive sect of all 
denominations, could not defend themselves against 
the peculiar severity of the puritans. They were 
made to undergo the most ignominious punishments ; 
yet, so patient were they under their sufferings, that 
they inspired a reverence for their opinions, and, by 
gaining many proselytes, defeated the intentions 
of their persecutors. Several who returned from 
banishment were put to death. Nor did the perse- 
cutions receive any check, until the interference of 
Charles the Second, in 1 661 . In that year the King 
issued a proclamation against these excesses; but 
he was not able to wholly suppress the malevolent 
spirit which had taken such deep root in the settle- 
ments. The religious discussions, with the doc- 
trines of grace and free will, were about this time 
revived, by Henry Vane, son of Sir Henry Vane, 
well known in the history of those times ; and while 


the disputants were engaged in their theological 
disquisitions, several of the savage nations united, 
fell upon the plantations, and massacred great num- 
bers of the settlers. So violent were these religion s 
contests, that very little heed was for some time 
taken of the common enemy. At length the colonists 
flew to arms, and repulsed the invaders ; but this was 
hardly accomplished, when a civil lyar commenced 
among themselves^ which was accompanied by enor- 
mities scarcely inferior to those which were acted 
during the most sanguinary contests t*ecord^d in the 
annals of any country, in any age. 

A most unaccountable degree of frenzy was 
exhibited, in the belief in and punishoaent of 
witchcraft. Numbers were sacrificed, and many of 
the moat prudent quitted the country which wa^ 
stained with the blood. of so miany. innocent victims* 
But while all were sunk in the most gloomy de- 
spondency, and a total destruction of the colony 
seemed at hand, their eyes were suddenly opened ; 
and, struck with the enormity of their guilt, they fell 
into a state of the most painful and bitter remcfrse. 
A general day of hunuliation was appointed, when 
they sought forgiveness, for the crime of halving sup- 
posed that heaven could be pleased with the sacri- 
fices offered up in the condemnation of the citizens. 

But there is a fairer pi^e in the early history of 
this colony. The persecutions in England haye been 
already noticed, as the grand cause of the emigrations 
that took place after the first settlements were estab- 
lished in America. So great was tJie number who 


evinced an inclination to quit tfaeir country, that 
the court itself took the alarm. It being believed 
that several noblemen and gentlemen, who had 
lately procured patents for taking poseession of 
tracts of land, intended to emigrate, a royal order 
was issued, dated April 30th, 1637; "To restrain 
" all disorderly transportation of His Majesty's sub- 
"jeets to the plantations in America, without a 
*' licence from His Majesty's Commissioners, be- 
" cause of the very idle and refractory humours, 
" whose only and principal end was to live without 
" the reach of authority." And the next day an 
order was made in council : " That the First Lord of 
" the Treasury in England, then a bishop, should 
" take speedy and effectual course for the stay of 
" eight ships then in the Thames, preparing to go 
" to New England ; and should likewise give orders 
" for putting on land all passengers and provisions 
" therein intended for the voyage/' Oliver Crom- 
well and John Hampden are said to have been on 
board one of these vessels, for the purpose of re- 
monng to the colony in IS^ew England. 

After the colonists had recovered from the effects. 
of the late violent agitations, and tranquillity began 
to be established through the settlements, many 
wise and salutary laws were made, for the better 
preservation of order, and the general safety 
*nd protection from the destructive inroads of the 
savages. The clearing of land, instead of being 
left to chance, was put under useful restrictions, and 
^^ itettler <jould sit down, where temporary advan- 



Hage was alone considered; but, upon sixty families 
undertaking to build a church, and maintain a 
clei^yman and schoolmaster, the government allot- 
ted them a situation, and permitted them to send 
two representatives to the legislative assembly of 
the colony. Each district of land so assigned 
always bordered upon what was already allotted, 
and ordinarily contained about 60,000 acres. The 
particular spot upon which the settlers should planf 
themselves, erect their buildings, and lay the foun- 
dations of a town^ being left to themselves, was 
usually advantageously chosen, and the streets and 
squares were laid out before a hut was erected. 
The church was generally placed in the centre of 
the town ; and, as soon as it was practicable, a fair 
division of the property took place, each family re- 
taining a portion of the grand allotment, with a 
proportion of the town plot, in building lots ; and 
a sufficient reserve was always set apart for public 
buildings, to be erected when the increase and im- 
portance of the place should require them. 

Such was now the employment, and such were the 
pursuits, of men so lately occupied with the extra- 
vagant ravings of religious zeal. Wise and equitable 
regulations, dictated by liberal and open views, 
soon peopled so large a space of country, that a 
state division was found necessary for the better 
government of the settlemeirts. Accordingly, the 
extensive tract of country which formerly belonged 
to the North Virginian Company, and now called 
New England, was divided into four provinces : 

THE emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 63 

Massachusets, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and 
Connecticut; of which, Boston, Portsmouth, New- 
port, and Hartford, became the capital towns. 

The new provinces were at first entirely inde- 
pendent of each other ; but the attacks of the 
savages obliged them, for the general interest and 
safety, to form a confederacy, which was effected in 
the year 1643; and they were henceforth known 
under the name and title of the '' United Colonies:" 
and thus was the foundation laid, for the existing 
connection of interests in the present " United 
States" of America. 

As soon as this league was completed, two depu- 
ties were appointed to assemble on the part of each 
colony, to consult upon the general affairs of the 
" United Colonies" being governed by such instruc* 
tions as they should receive from their own state 
assembly. But the terms of this association did not 
bind each individual state to act in its particular 
affairs, otherwise than entirely as the local govern- 
ment thought proper. There was no responsibility 
to the associated authorities, or even always to the 
mother-country. The only submission exacted by the 
government at home, was the mere acknowledg- 
ment of the kings of England as their sovereignsi 
Charles II. was, however, desirous of rendering the 
colonies more dependent; and Massachusets, the 
most populous, being found guilty of a misdemeanor 
against the government, the king, in 1684, seized 
the opportunity to take away its charter, and it 
remained in this situation until the revolution of 



1688, when it wae endowed with another, but which 
did QOt answer the expectations of the colonists. 
The new forms reserved to the parent state the 
right of nominating the governor and appointing 
all the military officers, and also of filling up all the 
offices of the civil department ; but permitted the 
colonists to retain their legislative influence, in the 
choice of their representatives. 



Dateh EiieFoaehmeiit8.^LBagae with the Indians of the Fire Nfr* 
tions.— S«ttlemeBt of Canada by the French. •^ Nora Scotia 
ceded.— Gape Breton Island dlscoyered by the French.— Taken 
by the Bnglish. — ^French settle in the Island of St. John.— •Penn- 
sylvania settled.— Newfoundland. 

Haying brongbt the account of the most im- 
portant of the. English colonies up to the period of 
their beginning to assume the appearance of or- 
ganized states^ it id necessairy to ifiake a fevr obser- 
Tations upon the transactions of the French and the 
Dutch, which were the only two nations in Europe 
that imitated our example, or took any steps, if we 
except the Spaniards in Mexico, towards the estab- 
lishment of colonies in America. 

The Duteh^ as early as the year 1608, purchased 
of Captain Hudson, who discovered the river which 
bears his name, a great |>art of that country which 
is now comprised witibdn the boundaries of the state 
of New York, where they had previously established 
settlements. The transfer having taken place with- 
out the licence of King James, the occupants were 
speedily dispossessed by Sic S. Argal, goviemor of 
Virginia, who visited them for that purpose. They 
then made application to the king, and received liberty 
to erect a few buildings for the convenience of their 
ships, touching there for fresh water and provisions ; 


but they soon exceeded their licence, by bailding and 
fortifying towns, cultivating the land, and carrying on 
trade with the Indians. New Amsterdam was their 
chief establishment. It remained in the hands of 
its founders until the year 1664, when Charles II. 
made it a present to his brother the Duke of York, 
and Sir Robert Carr was sent with about 3000 men 
and some ships of war to gain possession of the 
country ; but, immediately upon his i^val, the city 
was surrendered, with all the Dutch settlements in 
the provinces ; and the name of New York was 
henceforth given to the town, as well as to the 

Not long after this, a league was concluded with 
the Indians of the Five Nations, which were united 
and very powerful. This compact long continued 
unbroken ; so that, by the treaty of Utrecht, in 
1713, the French were obliged to maintain good 
faith with the Indians, as inviolably as with the 
English. The five kings came over to England 
during the reign of Queen Anne, to give the English 
the fullest assurance of their fidelity ; and these 
nations became identified as our most faithful allies, 
during the remorseless wars which were for some 
time carried on with the French, aided also, by their 
Indian allies. 

The French, indeed, were the only Europeans, 
except the English, who made any considerable 
figure in the colonization of the northern continent 
of America. Their earliest and chief settlements 
were upon the great river St. Lawrence, in the 

THB emioramt's iktbobvctiok. &7 

country of Canada. This part of the continent was 
undoubtedly first discoyercMd by Cabot» during the 
reign, and in the service of King Henry VII. ; but 
the English preferred the shores of the Atlantic in 
a more genial latitude, and neglected to keep pos- 
session of the northern or interior regions. 

In 1525, Francis I. sent out Varrazzano, a Flo* 
rentine, to attempt, as it was pretended, the dis* 
corery of a northern passage to the Pacific Ocean ; 
but in reality, as is more probable, for the purpose 
of ascertaining the capabilities of the country. 
Varrazzano, after having accomplished two voyages, 
sailed on a third expedition, for the purpose of 
planting a colony, but was never afterwards heard 
of; and it remains uncertain, whether his colony 
was cut off by the savi^e8,or perished by famine, or 
even whether they ever landed in the country. 

In the year 1534, the French again attempted to 
make discoveries, and to colonize Canada. The 
king sent out three ships under the conduct of 
Jaques Cartier of St. Maloes, who sailed along the 
coast of Newfoundland, entered the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, landed in several places and took formal pos- 
session of the country in his sovereign's name. He 
visited it again in 1535, and wintered at St. Croix, 
in the bay of Fundy ; but, owing to the severity of 
the season, and the prevalence of the scurvy, his 
party, it is said, would have all perished, had they 
not made use of the buds of wild pines, which were 
found to relieve that disorder. Cartier, however^ 



notwithflfanding his suffBrbgs, impFessed the king 
with so favorable an o^nion of the capabilities of 
the country for settlement, that this monarch, in 
1540, appointed one Roberval viceroy of Canadla, 
and sent oat an expedition with Cartier in the capa- 
city of pilot. A fort was constructed in the Golf of 
St. Jiawrencey and Cartier was left in the command 
of the garrison, while the viceroy returned to 
France, to obtain new supplies and more settlers. 
In 1649, Rdberval again embarked with a number 
of adventurers, but no accounts of the fate of him- 
self or any of his companions ever reached Europe. 
No further attempts were made by the French, 
until the reign of Henry IV., who appointed the 
Marquis de la Roche lieutenant-general of Canada 
and the neighbouring countries: but the marquis 
did little more than make an absurd attempt to colo- 
nize a sand island about thirty leagues from the 
coast, now known by the name of Sable Island ; 
and upon which there is not, nor probably ever 
was, or will be, a single tree. Here he left forty 
malefactors, who, it is said, made themselves huts 
out of the fragments of one of the French ships 
which was wrecked upon the coast, and subsisted 
upon fish for seven years, keeping up their supply 
of necessarjpiclothing, from the skins of seals which 
resorted to this island. At length the king sent a 
vessel to remove them, and they were brought back 
to France. It is added, that Henry, having first 
ordered that they should be brought into his pre- 


sence in their islaad dresses, generously forgave 
them their offences, and presented each man with 
fifty crowns. 

In the year 1600, Chauvin, a eommaader in the 
French service, accompanied by Pontgrave, a mer- 
chant of St. Maloes, undertook a voyage, in order 
to learn the truth of the various reports and opinions 
respecting the country. He succeeded in viewing 
it, and obtaining a quantity of furs, and the next 
year made a second profitable voyage, and was pre* 
paring for a third, when he died. The success, 
however, of his two voyages excited general inquiry, 
and so favourable were the conclusions that were 
drawn, that an armament was fitted out under the 
command of Pontgrave, who had instructions to 
extend his discoveries up the river St. Lawrence. 
This he accomplished in 1603, in company with 
Samuel Champlain of the French navy,, who had the 
reputation, of being a man of uncommon genius and 
enterprise. It was not, however, until the year 
1608, that the first French colony was fully estab- 
lidied. In that year the French founded the city 
of Quebec, which is still the capital of Canada. 

Too much praise cannot be bestowed upon the 
founders of Quebec, for their judgm^t in selecting 
so favorable a position, as well, for its healthy situ- 
ation, the protection which it affords the settle- 
ments, and the convenience of trade, as for the 
romantic beauty of the country which surrounds it. 

It was.. many years before the colony of Quebec 
made any considerable progress. The savages 


that encompassed it were a warlike race, and the 
French were for some time in danger of being^ 
totally exterminated. At length, a treaty was con- 
cluded with the Indians, and the politic measures 
of the French settlers so strongly cemented the 
good understanding, that their former enemies 
became their faithful allies ; and during the war 
which afterward raged between the English and 
French colonists, they were the willing instruments 
of the latter, in the execution of some of the most 
barbarous excesses of which history affords any 

Besides their efforts to settle Canada, the French , 
several years before the plantation of the first settle- 
ments in New England, made some attempts ta 
colonize Nova Scotia. Although the country of 
right belonged to England, so little value was at- 
tached to it, that no obstacles were thrown in the 
way of these encroachments. They fixed their set- 
tlements on the Bay of Fundy, and altered the 
name of the peninsula to that of Arcadia, and called 
their capital Port Royal. The colonists, however, 
took no pains to improve the eountry, but turned 
their attention almost exclusively to the fur^trade. 

The Indians who inhabited this district, though 
inspired with a love of war, in common with the 
other tribes of America, aresi)oken of by some early 
French writers as remarkably docile and sociable 
in their manners. Thus, the catholic missionaries 
of that age found but little difficulty in insinuating 
themselves into their friendship and confidence; 


but with the chritlian creed which they taught, they 
instilled into their minds that hatred of the English, 
which they themselves possessed. It is said, that, in 
order to stimulate the vengeance of the Indians, 
above all things, they were made to believe, that 
Jesus Christ was a Frenchman, and that the Jews 
who crucified him were Englishmen ; but, from the 
little impression that any christian doctrines appear 
to have made upon their minds, even at this day, 
we may safely conclude, that the shocking excesses 
which the Indians committed, were rather the con- 
sequences of their own savage dispositions when 
excited by war, than the result of missionary instiga- 
tion. Yet there exists sufficient evidence to remove 
any doubt, that the utmost power which the priests 
could obtain over the credulity of the savages, was 
exerted to excite them against the enemies of France. 
By these devices, the Frenish enjoyed, for some time, 
the exclusive benefit of the fur-trade within the best 
supplied districts of America. 

That indifference which at first appeared to insure 
peace between the neighbouring colonies and rival 
nations, soon gave place to jealousy and war ; and 
perpetual hostilities were kept up between them, 
until the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, when the penin- 
sula of Arcadia was for ever ceded to the English, 
and was by them restored to its ancient name of 
Nova Scotia. Port Royal was fortified and re- 
named Annapolis, in honor of Queen Anne, in 
whose reign the province was finally ceded. 
It was not until the peace of 1749, that the 

62 THB BMiaRA1!rr*& INTaODirOTIOK. 

British goyemment began to estimate the valne of 
•Nova Scotia. In that year, some steps were taken 
to eolonize it, cliiefly, by granting out tracts of land 
to officers and men of the navy and army who bad 
served their country during the war, reserving to 
the crown an almost nominal quit-rent of one 
shilling a year upon every fifty acres. The lots of 
land thus granted were proportioned according to 
the rank of each individual and the number of his 
family, and rarely exceeded 600 acres. Fifty acres 
were given to a seaman or j>rivate soldier without 
fiimily ; but to those who carried families, ten acres 
were added for each individual. Many settlers of 
this latter class would, as may be supposed, be 
destitute of the means of commencing the cultivation 
of their lands, and there was not sufficient popu- 
lation to create such employment as might enable 
them to relieve the first necessities of a colonist. It 
was, on this account, wisely undertaken by the 
government, to make advances to those who had 
nothing, and to reimburse those who were not in 
actual want, for the expences of transporting them- 
selves to the colony, and to defray the necessary 
expences of one year, and also to provide the im- 
plements of agriculture smd the most useful articles 
for the fisheries. Encouraged by this well-directed 
liberality, between three and four thousand persons 
embarked and settled in Nova Scotia the same year. 
The island of Cape Breton was also first colo- 
nized by the French, who retained possession of it, 
until the total overthrow of the interests of France 


in America. A few French fisheraien had resorted 
here from a very early period, but the island waa 
not taken formal posBesskm of until 1713, when its 
name was changed to that of Isle Royale. Port 
Dauphin, the harbour in which the French first 
erected their pennaiient abodes, although oommo* 
dious, well sheltered, tod capable of being rendered 
impregnable at a small ezpence, was found so diffi- 
cult of aoeess, that the place was abandoned, after 
much time and expence had been bestowed in at- 
tempting to improTC it. After this, they selected a 
more favorable spot, within a fine harbour upon the 
sonth-^astem shore of the island. Here they built 
Louisbui^h, and erected fortifications. 

After the final reversion of Nova Scotia to the 
crown of Great Britain, it was the wish and expec* 
tation of the French to see their Arcadian subjects 
remove to Isle Royale, but their hopes were never 
realized. The located colonists preferred a change 
of masters to a change of country, habitations, and 
homes ; and, notwithstanding that the terms of the 
treaty permitted them, not only to remove their 
effeets, but even to dispose of their improved estates, 
die greater part retained their possessioas, which 
their descendants enjoy to this day. 

But the Frendi colony in Isle Hoyaie was re- 
cruited^ from time to time, by the arrival of dis- 
tressed emigrants from France, and soon amounted 
to the number of 4000 souls, in the several settle- 
ments of Lottiebui^, Fort Dauphin, Toulouse, and 
Neracha. Their attention was chiefly confined to 


the prosecution of the fisheries, and the trade which 
arose out of this lucrative occupation* Agricniltnral 
pursuits were entirely neglected, although there 
are many parts in the vicinity of the old capital, 
capable of producing the bread corns. The trade at 
this time was limited to the export of fish with a 
few JFiirs ; in return for which, the settlers received 
their most necessary supplies. 

In the year 1745, a most singular attack was 
made upon Cape Breton, by the colonists of New 
England, and was attended with as singular success. 
A merchant of Boston, named Pepperel, first conr 
ceived the project of taking possession of the island, 
and was chosen to conduct the enterprise, and en- 
trusted with the command of 600 men, levied for the 
purpose. The forces were conveyed by a squadron 
which happened to be on its return from the West 
Indies, and the plans were so well concerted, and 
so cautiously carried into execution, that the French 
were taken by surprise. But, considering the 
strength of Louisburgh, upon the fortifications of 
which much pains had been bestowed, and large sums 
of money expended, and allowing for the inexperience 
of the hastily-raised regiments of New Englanders, 
supplied with sea-officers only, and commanded by 
a merchant, to whom, although familiar with danger, 
the science of war was little known, had the town 
been tolerably garrisoned, a favorable termination 
of this gallant exploit could hardly have been anti^ 
cipated. But, at the time, there were only 60Q 
trained men in Louisburgh, with a militia, hastily 

THB XMiaR ant's ivtboovotxon. 65 

armed, and composed of men, who, like the greater 
part of their opponents, had probably never seen a 
siege, or faced an enemy. The garrison had, besides 
this, been six months in a state of mutiny when the 
English arrived; 

The patriotism of the French soldiers was at this 
critical moment conspicuous. Seeing the necessity 
of union in the common cause, they made the first 
advances to their officers, and evinced their readi- 
ness to defend the fort in the time of common 
danger ; but their officers, mistrusting a generous 
feeling of which they themselves were not capable, 
believed that the object of the soldiers was to sally 
out and desert to the enemy. Thus, the defence of 
Louisburgh being so ill-conducted, the garrison 
was obliged to capitulate ; and there being no other 
fort, the ^est of the island fell, with the capital, into 
the hands of the English. But this lai^ and valu- 
able possession, with its coal-mines, fine harbours, 
and every requisite for extensive fisheries, was 
again yielded up to the French at the treaty of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, only three years after its fortunate 
conquest. From this time it remained attached to 
the crown of France, until the war which ended in 
the reduction of the other French colonies, and the 
subjugation of the whole of North America to the 
dominion of Britain. 

The French planted some colonies, also, in the 
Island of St. John, within the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
now called Prince Edward's Island ; but the country 
being found better adapted for agricultural pursuits 

6iS THE emigrant's ivtroditction. 

than for the business of fishing, and the steady em- 
ployment in tillage not agreeing so well with the 
genius of the early French colonists, very little 
improvement of any kind was for some time made. 
Those settlers, however, who made agriculture their 
chief pursuit, enjoyed the greatest prosperity, until 
this colony fell, with the neighbouring provinces, 
into the hands of the English. 

The important colony of Pennsylvania was not 
among the earliest of the English establishments in 
America. The Dutch, as far back as the year 1608, 
included that district within the territory which 
ihey considered themselves authorized to possess by 
virtue of their purchase from Hudson, the dis- 
coverer of that part of America; and it was not 
until after the English, during the Dutch war in 
1664, took possession of their setdements, by the 
Duke of York, to whom they were granted, sending 
a squadron under the conduct of Sir Robert Carr, 
that any decided or successful attempts were made 
to colonize Pennsylvania. The Duke parcelled out 
his ejctensive possessions, and sold them to different 
proprietx>rs. Sir William Penn, who had formerly 
commanded Oliver Cromwell's fleet, and who 
became captain-general under the Duke of York 
after the restoration, purchased the settlement of 
New-Castle or Delaware, and. the country to the 
distance of about twelve miles around it ; and also 
that large tract of country known by the name of 
the *^ Three lower countries upon the Delaware 
River." Some time after this, all the proprietors, 

TBB emigrant's intaodxtction. 67 

except PetiDy surrendered their charters to the 
crown, and New York and New Jersey became 
royal goveraments. In 1681, Charles 11., as a 
Compensation for the seryices of Penn, who died in 
1670, and in consideration of debts due to him 
from the crown at his decease, granted to his son, 
William Penn, all the country west of the River 
Delaware, which then formed the province of 

Penn, now sole proprietor of the whole province, 
published a brief account of it, with the king's 
patent; and, as the terms of settlement for the first 
adventurers were liberal, many persons were induced 
to go over. For the better security of his pro* 
prietory, and the safety of the colopists, he fur-* 
ijier purchased the same country from its ancient 
and l€^timate possessors. . By this policy, a peace 
was concluded with the abor^ines which was never 
broken ; so that the colonists who settled in Penn^ 
sylvaida dwelt in security, while the most bloody 
and extirminating wars were more or less the in- 
heritance of the people of almost every other dis- 
trict in America. Penn, although brought up at 
ike university of Oxford, was a quaker ; and the 
faith of his sect is ascendant in the state of Penn- 
sylvania to iMn day. 

The first constitution of this province was drawn 
up by the proprietor, and consisted of twenty-four 
articles. The profession of the Society of Friends 
was declared to be the I'eligion of the state ; but the 
first article confirmed to every settler the free 

68 THB euiobant's introduction. 

exercise of his own forms of worship in the manner 
which appeared to him the most acceptable to God, 
so long as this liberty was exercised without licen- 
tiousness, and not perverted for the destruction or 
disturbanceof others. He established courts ofjustice 
in each county ; and, in each court, three peace- 
makers were appointed to hear and decide differences 
between friend and friend : but there was no pro- 
vision made to assure the public safety, or oppose 
the approaches of an invading enemy. At length, 
many ]>eople of other sects settled in Virginia, and 
a militia was loudly contended for ; but the prin- 
ciples of the majority of the people not allowing 
the use of arms in any case, the question remained 
unsettled until one of their ships fell into the hands 
of pirates, when they so far relaxed in their funda- 
mental tenets, as to hire men of other sects^ and 
send out an armed force to retake her. 

After this experience, all those who believed that 
measures of defence were necessary, were allowed 
to train themselves and make such military dispo- 
sitions as they thought most conducive to indivi- 
dual security, and to the safety of the country. 
But while Pennsylvania remained a province of 
Britain, the settlers enjoyed uninterrupted peace 
with the Indians, and the State internal tranquillity ; 
and these blessings were justly attributed to the 
moderation and politic measures of Penn, and the 
tolerant spirit of the predominant religion, which 
never led its votaries to any acts of oppression, or, 
by any intemperate zeal, called forth the pity or 

THB emigrant's IKTRODUOTIOlf. 69 

contempt which attached to almost every other 
religious communitj at that time established in the 
new world. 

In 1704, the British government judged it proper 
to make some alterations in the political constitu- 
tion of the province. It was in future to consist 
of three estates, in imitation, as in the other planta- 
tions, of the parliament of the mother-country. A 
governor and council, and house of assembly, re- 
presented the king, lords, and commons. The 
governor was chosen by the proprietors, now Thomas 
and Richard Penn, but the appointment was subject 
to the approbation of the king. The council was 
appointed by the governor, and the members of the 
assembly were elected with much the same forms as 
the commons of England. After this, there was no 
further change until the war of the revolution, the 
results of which will be presently adverted to. 

The Island of Newfoundland has been already 
noticed, as the earliest scene of English adventure 
in America; but the views of its first planters, 
and their successors, were of a character alto- 
gether different from those which were cherished 
by the enterprising colonists who first established 
themselves on the continent. We may, indeed, 
regard Newfoundland, as well in respect to the 
pursuits of those who visited it, as in the novelty of 
the expectations which its resources excited, as dis- 
tinct from the more permanent settlements, which, 
soon after their constitutions were formed, and the 
first difficulties subdued, began to feel a separate 

70 THE emigrant's imtrodcotiqn. 

interest from that which appertained to them in 
common with the people from which they sprang* 
This feeling could not exist in a colony, where the 
majority of the adventurers, as in this island, only 
visited thq settlements during the summer months, 
on account of the rich fisheries with which the 
coasts abounded < 

It would contribute but little toward the principal 
design of these remarks, to enter upon any narra* 
tion of those g^*eat political events, which changed 
the relations of the French and English colonies, 
either as they regarded each other, or as the influ- 
ence of these revolutions affected the interests of 
those nations from which the colonists severally 
drew their origin^ It may, nevertheless, be useful 
to note the time of the most important of these 
changes, and to make a single observation concern- 
ing the final result. 

After a series of contests between the English and 
French, disgraced by the atrocities of savage war- 
fare, the conquest of Quebec, by the English under 
General Wolfe* in 1759, put a period to these cala- 
mities. The Frenal^ had possessed themselves, not 
only of Canada and the countries around the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, but also of the territory west of the 
Mississippi. They would have established that great 
river, and the Gulf and River St. Lawrence^ which 
together encompassed the whole of the English 
continental provinces, as the boundary between the 
possessions of the two powers. But, after the re- 
duction of Quebec, the whole of the French settle- 

THE emigrant's INTEO]>UCTIOK. 71 

ments fell an easy prey ; so tbat» at the close of the 
war, England possessed the entire continent of 
North America, except Mexico ; and over these ex- 
tensiye dominions she continued to hold undispiited 
empire, until the American revolutionary war, 
which ended in the final separation of the united 
colonies from the parent state; leaving to Great 
Britain those provinces only, which she still pos- 
sesses, and which are now known under the general 
appellation of British America, and into the present 
condition, and prospects of which, it is intended, in 
the following pages, more particularly to inquire. 

Such were the leading transactions of those colo- 
nists, who laid the foundations, and undertook the 
nurture of our first plantations in America. Out of 
the commercial speculations of a few enterprising 
spirits, and the religious zeal of a persecuted sect, 
which took refuge in the desert, sprang up the 
most important colonies that were ever nurtured 
by any state. By these inadvertent causes, our 
language and our institutions have spread over a 
great extent of country in the new world ; and we 
have the gratifying assurance, that this vast con- 
tinent, to its utmost bounds, will hereafter be 
peopled by the descendants of Britons. The insti- 
tutions of those kingdoms and states, which time 
will call into existence, having their foundations 
laid in the civil and religious liberty of our free 
constitution, must appear in more purity and per- 
fection, as the light of science universally spreads 

72 THE emigrant's INTBODUOTIOK. 

its benign influence oyer the earth, and the prepress 
of moral and virtuous sentiments enables us to dis- 
cover and to regard those objects, which ought to 
be the aim of every good man, and the end of every 
human institution. 



All places that the eye of heaven visits. 

Are to he wise man ports and happy havens; 

Teach they necessity to reason thus : 

There is no virtuie like necessity.— Ctmbxlinb. 


Summary of the National Advantages of extensive Emigration. 

In the preceding pages, it has been the writer's 
endeavour to throw together as many of those in- 
teresting particulars concerning the history of colo- 
nization, as the circumscribed limits and nature of 
the subject will permit, from the earliest times, down 
to the firm establishment, and final separation from 
the mother-country, of the greater portion of the 
colonies of Britain and America. Before proceed- 
ing to the proposed brief review of the condition of 
those extensive provinces, which still form a part of 
the empire of Britain, or attempting to draw any 
useful inferences, it will not be amiss to make a few 
observations upon the excess of population and dis- 
comfort in these kingdoms. This will enable us the 
better to contrast the condition of the new settler in 
the colonies, with that of his fellow-countryman of 
the same degree at home, as well as afford the op- 
portunity of making a few remarks concerning these 


74 THE emiorakt's introduction. 

increasing evils, and of offering some suggestions for 
a means of promoting emigration, the remedy which 
will be insisted upon as most likely to be successfiil. 

An endearour to ascertain, with any degree of cor« 
rectness, what is really the amount of our surplus 
population, would lead to arguments quite unsuited 
to the present occasion, even were the writer at all 
qualified, which he is not, to discuss so difficult a 
question. But it may perhaps be said, without much 
danger of error, that as soon as the amount of 
population exceeds the OG^city of the soil to supply 
the increased demand, and the importation of the 
necessary articles of food commences, without a 
proportionate exportation of that which is equally 
necessary — from that time, all increase of population 
should be considered as surplus, and not to be main- 
tained, but by artificial and strained means. 

But, in place of adopting any theoretical opinion, 
let us be content, to hold that portion only of the 
community, a burden, which might be withdrawn 
from their present engagements, without diminishing 
the amount of labour performed in the country ; the 
surplus hands and heads engaged in every species of 
employment throughout all the ramifications of the 
complicated machinery of civil society : esteeming 
the head and the hand to be equal contributors, and 
their several departments equally surcharged with 
competitors, and proportionably distressed. 

Though the surplus amount of our population be 
difficult to ascertain, the increase may be with cer- 
tainty known ; and, in Great Britain and Ireland, 


this is ascertained to exceed 300,000 annuaUy. We 
know at the same time, tltat in a single year, upwards 
of one hundred thousand persons have emigrated to 
Ihe various British colonies, almost without assist- 
ance or advice, or at least without uniting in any 
systematic plans for the furtherance of their mutual 
interests. It would hardly, therefore, be too much 
to expect, that a very little effort would induce about 
three times that number, to choose this means 
of relief, and that a very little assistance, with proper 
direction, would enable them to find their way to one 
or other of the provinces in the western hemisphere. 
Were this accomplished, our population would 
probably be maintained at its present standard; 
while the removal of those who are now a burden to 
the country and themselves, would greatly increase 
the demand for the produce of our manufactories, 
raise the value of labour, and thus place the country 
in a condition to comfortably support its present 

The increase of population in the colonies is, in 
effect, to enlai^ our dominion, and open new fields 
for commercial enterprise. To these advantages 
may be added, one not inferior to any in importance, 
if the security and integrity of the empire be worthy 
our regard,*— the increase of that bold and hardy 
race of men by whom our shores are guarded, and 
our more vulnerable possessions proteoted,-^to 
whose valour, in a word, Great Britain mainly owes 
its present exalted rank amoi^ the nations of the 

£ 2 

76 THE emigrakt's introduction. 

The extent of coast which we occupy in North 
America, is greater than that possessed by any foreign 
power, and the nursery for seamen, which the fish- 
eries alone afford, is of the highest importance ; but 
all such advantages have been, by some, either over- 
looked, or not sufficiently appreciated, through an 
erroneous impression, that these fine colonies, with 
their many ad vants^es, will at no distant day become 
the dependencies of another power. That such a 
supposition is without the smallest foundation, must 
be acknowledged by every one who has taken the 
least trouble to become acquainted with the nature 
of the relations between the colonies and their re- 
publican neighbours. The Canadas, under the pro- 
tection of Great Britain, cannot be conquered ; and 
it is hoped, that they will not be left to themselves, 
until riper age and more experience render it de- 
sirable they should receive, and at the same time 
qualified them to maintain, their perfect indepen- 
dence. It might indeed be shown, and a few re- 
marks on this subject may be necessary in a future 
chapter, that it would be at variance with the true 
interests of the colonists at any time, to amalga- 
mate with the American republics ; and the interests 
of England will no doubt dictate the policy of es- 
tablishing and protecting the independent political 
existence, of her present colonies beyond the period 
that we can venture to anticipate the effects of any 
constitutional change whatsoever, whether they 
should be confederated, or wholly distinct in their 
political relations to each other. 

Tflfi emigrant's introduction. 77 

As emigration is not contemplated to that extent 
which would render this system of relief immediately 
and fully available, it is better to confine our ex- 
periments to what is safe, and not difficult to ac* 
complish. Let us then further inquire, what would 
be the effects of a well-ordered system of emigration, 
to a considerable degree greater than that at present 
in operation ; and a slight glance over the several 
interests which seem most subject to the influence 
of the oscillations of population, will be all that is 
necessary in this place. 

Some pains have been taken, by the colonists, to 
ascertain what advantage is gained by the parent 
state, in a national and commercial sense, from the 
improvements in the colonies ; and they do not seem 
to over-estimate the amount of consumption, taking 
the average of persons of all classes which emigrate, 
when they state it at three times greater after the first 
year of their settlement, than at any time before 
they quitted this country, with a rapid augmentation, 
in proportion to the increase of family and prosperity. 

If we could then, as already said, increase the pre- 
sent emigration about tlu*ee or four-fold, with more 
regard to individuals adapted to locate in the new 
countries, even supposing that there should be no 
diminution of our actual numbers, we should be no 
longer subjected to the same inconvenience, seeing 
that the extention of our settlements, in a territory 
abundantly capable of maintaining many millions 
of inhabitants above its present population, would 
enlarge our sources of commerce, excite new enter- 


prise, and encourage the extension of eTery branch 
of natural industry. 

Emigration has been considered by some» even if 
ever so extensive, but as a temporary telief. If 
they hare anticipated the time, when the colonial 
possessions of Great Britain shall be burdened with 
an unemployed population, let them cast bq eye over 
the map of the world, and compare the extent of 
this fiimous island with that ot its dependendes.r— 

" In the world's Tohime 
Oar Britain Beema as of it, but not in it; 
In a great pool, a swan's nest." 

Tlrere is no opinion more fiitile and ill-lbundedy 
than that of supposing the oyerflow of population in 
our colonies. The more you send, forages to come, 
the greater will be the capacity to receive ; and with 
every year the demand will increase, until the 
shores of the North Pacific Ocean be the seat of 
many flourishing cities, and their ports be filled 
with the shipping of Britain. 

If the caution, which has sometimes been thought 
necessary to prevent a too great increase of emigra- 
tion, arises fif^m any dread of depopulating the 
kingdom, it is not founded in so palpable an error, 
and is therefore worthy of more regard : neverthe- 
less, instead of grounds for these apprehensions, 
there is abundant reason to believe, that neither this, 
or any other country, will ever be depopulated by 
emigration. That aptly-styled political thermo* 
meter, the rate of wages, would give the alarm, and 

THB BsiiORAirT's tiftLtomsctu>n% 79 

at tbe same time check, too strong aa inclination to 
leave tHe country, should the sudden increase of 
emigration aflfect the manufacturer or agtiottlturidt, 
whose v^ice tn^ld be heard before the general in* 
terests partook of the inconveiience. In the mean 
time, let who may depart, the panper population 
must decrease, and the diminution of the poor-rates 
must more than counterbalance the increase of wages 
to the capitalist. But, should the mai^et for the 
bread corns begin to spread alarm, we haye ample 
security in the scale of duties regulating the impor- 
tation of that article, that neither the British land- 
lord or tenant would be effected, by what in reality 
would only be the removal of the unproductive 
consumers, who at present waste the substance of 
the occupiers and owners of land« 

Many have been of quite an opposite (pinion, from 
those who have entertained apprehensions of depo- 
pulation. These have supposed, that the ties which 
bind tts to the land of our nativity are an insurmount- 
able bar to the adoption of any plan of etnigration» 
upon a scale that is commensurate with the required 
diminution of oar population. From this convic- 
tion, they have been fearful of the necessity of 
arresting the very progress of creation, by placing a 
restraint upon the affections, and thus by the most 
unnatural means putting a stop to thikt increase, 
about which they have needlessly felt so muoh 
alarm. But happily, for the restoration and security 
of prosperity and comfort in the countries of the 
old world, and the increase of the human race in 

80 ZHB BiuaaAMT's isTRODucnoir. 

the new, expeiieHce has at length taaght ns how to 
ameliorate oar cdndition, without breaking the ties 
of country, or exchanging our best institutions for 
those of strangers ; and we have amjde room to 
spread over an almost inconceivable extent of coon* 
try, in all respects adapted to the production of the 
necessaries and luxuries of life in the greatest abun- 
dance. We must banish doubt and hesitation, and 
act as best becomes our terrestrial pre-eminence;, for, 

" Tis grave philosophy's absnrdest dream, 
That heayen's intentions are not what they seem." 

Let us rather rejoice, that Providence has in a 
peculiar manner selected our country to be the 
mother and nurse of nations not yet brought into 
being ; and that our language and religion, at a less 
distant day perhaps, than at this time appears reason- 
able to conjecture, may cover one half the habitable 
globe. Reason and nature join their voices to con- 
firm the evident design of the position in which we 
are placed, in relation to the vast unpeopled regions 
of the earth ; and at the same time point out the 
means, and invite us, to extend our dominions, and 
spread the free and philosophical spirit of Britons 
through every quarter of the globe ; replenishing 
the desert, and civilizing its barbarian inhabitants. 
The great design cannot be defeated. The soft and 
affectionate temper and kindness, with the charms 
of person, which nature has bestowed upon the other 
sex, have set at defiance that cold philosophy, which 
proposes to strangle, in its birth, the most delightful 


of hnman affections, and to convert the cheerful 
earth into the dull and gloomy abode of churlish- 
ness and misanthropy. 

But although some suggestions will be thrown 
oat concerning such simple measures as appear best 
adapted to promote these great objects, upon aprin- 
dple of safety and certain benefit, and to an extent, 
calculated to produce the happiest effects, the writer 
would not be understood to express an opinion con- 
trary to those who have pointed out the benefits 
which are likely to arise from a well-regulated sys- 
tem of emigration under government auspices. But 
the truth is, that although it has been shown that 
one-eighth of the present amount of poor-rates would 
annually settle our whole surplus increase, yet, mea- 
sures are not taken, and for this reason, it is time that 
the utility of new projects was discussed. Whatever 
plans, however, may be ultimately adopted, for the 
transfer of grown persons and families, infant emi- 
gration, which will in a subsequent chapter be pres- 
sed upon the attention of all who may engage in any 
seheme of relief, must necessarily be under the su- 
perintendence of government ; but the plans might 
nevertheless be advantageously comUned with those 
colony associations which will be hereinafter recom- 

But no plan can be expected to be successful, or 
of extensive influence, that is not supported by the 
gentlemen and magistracy of the country ; for, 
through their exertions alone, can the industrious 
peasantry be assured of the truth of those represen- 

£ 5 

82 THB VHumAHii^Q' unmKOWnQif* 

tations, and tke solid feondfttiou o£ tibose ofHuions, 
at first so astoandiag, wbto the ^oaufbrts of the 
colonists are contrasted inth tlie cpndition of the 
poorer, aad sometimes^ eyen^ of niiddle classes at 
home. The elements of a high and ^iterpiising 
spirit exist in aU ranks of soeietyi in every comer 
of Britain. Let but the seeds be sown, and where- 
CT^F the groond is prepared for the experkaent^ the 
active spirit will take root, and spring op am<»ig 
those who are best adapted to the enterprise ; and a 
very little exertion will be required, to obtain and 
propagate such fidl and correct information, as will 
enable them to advantageously direct their future 

It would not suit the limits prescribed to this im- 
perfect sketch, to enlarge any further upon the 
abundant and obvious advantages, in a national 
sense, to be derived from the removal of our surplus 
population. It must be here assumed, that the pre- 
dictions of political economists are already fulfilled ; 
and that at this moment, we labor under a weight of 
ills, big with alarming apprehensions of distress of 
the most poignant character, to be averted by no 
human means, unless some check be found to the 
further increase of population, more efficient than 
any that has yet been in operation. 

That we possess the most wholesome, and most 
natural means, of providing against every threatened 
inconvenience, not a doubt can arise. Nor can 
any distrust or scruples be entertained, concerning 
the effects of emigration, upon the condition of those 

TSB smoBAirt's nrrBODUOTioif. . 83 

who depart, as well as of those who remain ; while, at 
the same time, every colony planted must contribute 
to extend our commercial empire, and entail the 
beneficial effects of its influence upon the most re- 
mote posterity. That principle of industry and 
enterprise which has penetrated into all regions, 
should be fostered, and made the means of introdu- 
cing population, and of establishing civilization with 
its attendant blessings, throughout the vast un- 
peopled continents of America, Africa, and Australia. 

84 ■ THB bmioramtV niTBO0ironoir. 


British North America.— Geographical Description.— CKmate.— 
Aborigines. — ^Division into Provinces. — Political Constitutiofna.— ' 
Advantages of a Federal Union. 


Ik the preceding chapter, much freedom has been 

taken in speaking of the present state of things in 

Great Britain, with their evident tendency, unless 

prudent and judicious measures be speedily adopted 

to check the enormous increase of population. The 

part of the subject upon which we are now entering, 

it is intended, should embrace such matters only^ as 

concern the more immediately interested inquirer, 

who contemplates removing to one or other of the 

American plantations ; or those who, from ties of 

kindred or other close connection, may feel a lively 

interest in the success of their relatives, friends, or 

dependents, who should propose to remove beyond 

the circle of their direct influence. It is necessary, 

after a brief notice of such features as are generally 

applicable, to particularize in a distinct, yet concise 

manner, such matters of interest as severally apply 

to the present condition of each of the American 

provinces. After this, the opinions which will be 

hazarded concerning the particular adaptation of 

individuals, whom such information may concern, 

to the peculiar character of several of the settle- 

*rfiB SMtORAHt's INTROD0CTIOK. « 85 

ments, may be more clearly conveyed ; while the 
reader will be the better enabled to judge of the 
value of such special suggestibns as will be offered 
for his consideration. 

By British America, is usually understood the 
whole of that vast country which Great Britain pos- 
sesses in the new world, exclusive of the West In« 
dies ; comprehending several provinces and islands 
of great natural fertility and beauty, and capable of 
supporting a population of almoait indefinite nnm*^ 
bers. It is bounded, on the east, by the Atlantic 
ocean ; on the west, by the Pacific ; on the south, 
by the United States, and a chain of lakes, or inland 
seas, which empty themselves into the great river St. 
Lawrence ; and, on the north, by the Frozen Ocean 
and the Polar Sea. But as the greater part oF these 
r^ons to the north, from the inclemency of the 
climate, is unfit for the habitation of man, in a 
civilized state ; while the earth retains its present 
unequal temperature, and the soil of the higher lati» 
tades its sterility ; and is, moreover, far removed 
from the plantations, whose condition is the chief 
object of these inquiries, thefoUowing remarks will 
be confined to what concerns those southern por- 
tions only, which are at this time inhabited, and have 
their name and limits more certainly defined. 

The general aspect and external appearance of 
these countries, is altogether of a grand and majestic 
character. Whether we consider their boundless 
forests, their inland seas, their deep and rapid 
streams, or their innumerable cataracts, of whose 


raHgnificenc^ and sublhuity no expression asat con* 
vej a just idea, naluf*e eonttnaHlly preseiils us with 
her most striking objects of amazement and wonder. 
We sail up the St. Lawrence, which is ninety miles 
in breadth at its entrance, scarcely perceiving any 
change from the ocean, until we draw within sixty 
or a htthdred miles of Quebec, which is situated 
about foiur hundred miles from the gulf into which 
thii great body of American waters flows. We then 
begin to perceiye that we are in a river, from the 
freshn^s of the Water, rather than the appearanise 
of the land, which is monntamous and rugged, and 
does not give the common indications Of ordinary 
rivers. As we gradually ascend the stream of thifi 
** father of waters," the contracting shoi^, becoiti* 
ing more visible, present a griind and varied scene. 
On the south, some clear spots occasionally appear 
near the banks ; beyond which, the land, gradually 
rising hill over hill, presents its varieties of verdure 
and beauiT'^ until the eye, digued and dazzled with 
tiie vast extent and spl^ttdour of the forest over which 
it ranges, rests lipon the blue and distant ridges of 
the AUaghanies ; while, on the No^th, thie more 
abrupt, and irregular high lafids and promontories 
bear testimony, that some accounts which were 
found in the journals of the Jesuits, who were among 
the earliest settlers in Canada, descriptive of the 
most terrible convulsions c^ nature, which it has 
ever ftdlen to the lot of any annalists to record, 
though doubtless exaggerated, had their foundations 
laid in the modt frightful reality. 

THB EHIQRlirt'fl ihtroditction.. 87 

Into ihis vaightj river^ lakes and tribaiary streaim 
witkont Qttmber dischaifpe their waters. The Ottawa, 
the most eoasiderable, taking its rise in a region 
unknown) Mis into the St. Lawrence near six 
hundred miles from the 8ea« But the source of those 
waters which supply the great chain of lakes, and 
pour down the Niagara Falls, and many rapids, in 
their descent to the lower countries, may be traced 
to the rocky mountains, at the distance of three 
thousand miles from the ocean. If we consider the 
magnitude and number of the lakes which connect 
the most remote interior of the country with the 
Atlantic ; the ama^ng velocity and sublimity of the 
rapids, which wash a thousand islands as they sweep 
down their declivities; and the grandeur and number 
of tiie precipitous cataracts, we are confounded by 
the prodigality with which nature has lavished her 
rarest objects of interest upon this region of the 

Throughout the greater part of these spacious 
provinces, the climate, and those natural phenomena, 
upon the influence of which it depends, vary so little, 
that, on this important head, a few observations will 
be of general application ; while any material ex- 
ception may be noticed under the separate head of 
each particular division of the country. 

The most remarkable characteristics of the Ame- 
rican climate consist in the extremes of heat and 
cold to which all the northern latitudes are subjee^ 
ted ; the salubrity and clearness of the atmosphere, 
the quick transition from winter to summer ; with 


the pbenomenon of the Indian summer ; and to these 
maybe added, the sudden and great variations in the 
thermometer, at almost every season, and the de- 
pendence, to be generally placed, upon the indica- 
tions of change or steadiness in the weather. 

The Indian summer, as it is called in America, is 
a short season, which usually, but not always, in- 
tervenes between the first eflForts of winter and the 
final setting in of the cold weather. A light frost 
first takes place, and lasts about three days, or a 
week ; after which, the north-west wind dies away, 
and calms, and light airs from the south-west prevail 
again, and the weather is delightful for ten or some- 
times twenty days. 

To the prevalence of certain winds in their ap- 
pointed seasons, is undoubtedly owing the general 
steadiness of the weather, and the great excep- 
tions, when at certain periods, the sudden variar 
tion in the course of the currents of air, produces 
that incredible change in the temperature which is 
sometimes experienced within the twenty-four hours. 
.But the cause of the immediate, and more positive 
influence of winds which diflFer so materially in their 
effects from those which blow from the same points 
of the compass in Europe, is not difficult to compre- 
hend. The whole country to the north, from within 
a few miles of the settlements, as far as the latitudes 
where vegetation ceases, is covered with a dense 
forest, every where impervious to the rays of the 
sun. In a cleared country, the earth, being well 
dried and warmed during summer, seems to retain 

THE emigrant's iktroduction. 89 

its heat long enough to prevent the snow from lying 
at the commencement of winter, until considerably 
later than in the woods. Thus, the winds from the 
forest, which is in Canada, in every direction except 
that of the sea, are always cold ; while the warmth 
which tlie breezes from the ocean never fail to bring, 
in addition to the common cause of their mildness 
throughout the northern hemisphere, receive ad- 
ditional beat, as well as moisture, as they pass over 
the gulf-stream. The gulf*stream is a current of 
heated water of several hundred miles in breadth, 
flowing continually from the West Indies towards 
the north-east, and producing a sensible effect upon 
the climate of the northern portions of America, espe- 
cially of those districts which lie upon, or near, the 
coast of the Atlantic. The provinces, at the same 
time, being several degrees south of Britain, have a 
more vertical sun, at that season, when the woods 
are free from snow, and the ground dry ; while the 
vicinity of the settlements to the great forest, with 
its concealed carpet of snow during winter; together 
with the prevalence of northerly winds, are causes 
too powerful in their effects to be counterbalanced 
by the advantage of the few degrees of difference 
of latitude which they enjoy. These are the two 
principal causes of the extremes of heat and cold 
experienced in America. 

The general opinion entertained of the effects of 
the American climate upon the operation of hus- 
bandry, is however far from being just. The land 
indeed, for sometimes near four months in the up** 


per country, and betw^n four and fiye in the lower, 
is frozen, covered with snow, and entirely at rest« 
Bat this slumber of nature is attended with this 
advantage, that v^etation having ceased, the earib, 
instead of exhorting itself by frequent abortive ef- 
forts, as during an open winter in Britain, reserves 
its energies to act more effieetively when the snow dis^^ 
appears, At this season, the soil, pulverized by the 
frost, presents a surface, clean and fresh from re- 
pose^ and in all respects benefitted by the long 
sleep of the quickening principles of vegetation ; 
and this is the secret of that extreme fertility which 
is every where visible in the kiiidly and luxurious 
growth of the most delicate and spare productions 
of the vegetable world. 

The variety of the productions of the same soil 
constitute the chief feature in which the forests of 
America differ from those of Europe. The native 
trees are numerous in their kinds, and valuable. 
The most common are, the pine, spruce, birch, 
maple, oak, elm, and poplar, of their several 
species: and, it is the incalculable varieties and 
graceful mixture, which is almost every where ob- 
served, that lends such enchantment to the woods 
of North America. In autumn, when the frost first 
touches the leaves of the most tender trees, the 
variety of the colours, and the luxuriance of the 
foliage, exhibit a landscape as beautiful as can be 

The forests of this region are the habitation of 
innumerable tribes of wild animals, many of them 
uncommon, and some of them unknown, in Europe. 

TSB XinORlirT*8 lKTRO0UCTfO9. 91 

The iiioBt remftrkidble, of the larger tribes, are the 
bears, wolves, foxes, carriboo, moose deer, common 
deer, the bafiJEdo or bison, the mask ox, and the 

The bears, during summer, frequently visit the 
settlements, to prey upon the ftirmer's stock; but 
few commit depredations without paying the forfeit 
of their lires, and their skins are generally valuable 
enough to repair all the damages. They sleep, or 
lie in a torpid state, all the winter, and when dis- 
covered in Hieir dens make but little resistance. 

Foxes are plenty every where ; but die wolves 
are chiefly tneH with, very remote from the older 
settlements. There are several kinds of these 
fierce animals. The prowling wolf wanders alone, 
and when met with, is dangerous ; but, if you have 
a horse, your voracious enemy will first seize upon 
the throat of that animal, when you have, being at 
liberty in your sledge, at least ike opportunity of 
using your fire-arms, without which, nobody enters 
the woods in the country infested by these animals ; 
and you may possibly slay the destroyer in time to 
save the life of your quadruped companion. Those 
of another kind scour the country in the northern 
region. They go in companies, and obtain their 
prey by cunningly entrapping the deer, whose swift- 
ness would otherwise render their escape easy. 
They surround them in favorable situations, and 
drive them over steep cliff's, by which these timid 
animals are either maimed or killed, and thus become 
the prey of their wily enemies. 


The beaver is the most interesting animal of the 
woods, but is seldom found near the settlements. 

The moose deer are very common throughout the 
continental provinces. They usually stand about six 
feet high, but they are often taller. The moose is 
not a graceful animal, and his neck is so short that 
he cannot feed upon the meadows, but browses upon 
the leaves of young trees. They are excellent eat- 
ing, and their skins are used by the Indians for a 
part of their dress. 

The common deer are very numerous in the 
upper countries. They are frequently hunted, or 
rather shot, by the settlers as well as the Indians. 
Their flesh is delicate, and of excellent flavor. 

The carriboo is another species of deer, of which 
the flesh is also much esteemed. 

The buffalo, or bison, is a species of wild ox, very 
numerous in the western regions of America. They 
go in herds, and feed upon the great meadows or 
prairies of the west. 

There are also other species of wild oxen, which 
range the vast country beyond the lakes, such as 
the musk ox and the elk, but they are little known 
to the settlers in Canada. 

Otters are in plenty in some of the rivers, and the 
walrus or sea-cow, and the common seal, abound 
upon the coasts of Labrador. The latter are some* 
times taken in great quantities about the Magda- 
lene Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

The fresh-water lakes and rivers every where 
abound in the most delicious kinds of fish. Upon 


the coasts, the great American fish of the ocean is 
the cod. Herrings and alewives or gaspereau, are 
in plenty at certain seasons; and, upon the hanks 
off the coasts, hoUahut, a fish resembling the turbot 
in shape, bnt larger and much less delicate in flavor, 
may be taken m any quantity. 

The birds of America are numerous. Those most 
esteemed for the table, are, the wild goose, brant 
or barnacle, black duck, partridge, and wild 

There are no dangerous reptiles in any of the 
provinces, except the rattle-snake found in Upper 
Canada and this tribe is not numerous : but there are 
mosquitos of a variety of kinds, which are a great 
annoyance in the woods during the months of July 
and August. 

Every portion of America, into which the cupidity 
or curiosity of Europeans has led them to penetrate, 
has been found inhabited, in a greater or less 
degree, according to the climate and the ease or 
difficulty of procuring the means of subsistence; 
and the western regions of Canada are still peopled 
by numerous tribes of aborigines, upon whom the 
light of civilization has not yet dawned. But 
wherever the Europeans have subdued the forest, 
or extended their influence, the Indians have pro- 
portionably diminished, by reason of their unwil- 
lingness to embrace the habits of civilized life ; 
and, although this tenacious adherence to ancient 
manners, at first appears an evil very easy to 
remedy, and the prospect of reclaiming those tribes 


or remnaDtfl of tribes which remain, not hopeless, 
it is impossible to ai^ain to any knowledge of their 
character, without at least doubting, whether the 
measures hitherto pursued towards th^n are not 
calculated to brutaliae and destroy their whole race, 
rather than to civilize or preserve them from ex* 

In Virginia, which is the state of all the United 
States that has been most fertile in men of genius, 
some of the first families have partly descended 
from the ancient Indian race; but hereditary talents 
and greatness of mind, which are acknowledged to 
be the predominant features in the character of 
those from among these £eimilies who have risen to 
eminence, have not been able to save the remnant 
of the native Americans from that contempt which 
their present degradation has unjustly inspired, or 
from the prospect of utter extermination. 

The residue of some of the broken and degraded 
nations of the great native family still, however, 
exist among the European settlers, though their 
numbers yearly diminish ; and, since the death of 
Decamprey, a famous orator and warrior, who was 
killed at the head of his people, while fighting on 
the side of the king during the last American war, 
no leader of commanding genius has appeared 
among the tribes which border upon the settle- 
ments ; and no chief has been found, by whose in- 
fluence any great revolution might have been ac- 
complished : and there is a native haughtiness and 
contempt of labour in their dispositions, which in- 

THB emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 95 

dooes tfaem to rqeot every means of providhig the 
neoeesftries of life, that requires forethought and 
steadinesB to render it available. It must, however, 
be confessed, that there is, at the same time, in the 
Indian character, a hj^h degree of sensibility and 
delicacy; and 

^' Spiriti ore not ibely touched, 
Bat to fine Issaes;** 

a certain poetic simplicity, which, combined with 
the higher or more striking attributes of their 
character, seems still to flatter our hopes, that there 
might be means found of saving them from destruc- 
tion, were their dispositions more studied, and the 
best measures taken to divert tbeir inherent genius 
into the safest and most legitimate channels. 

The greatest natural obstacle to overcome, in any 
attempt to civilize the Indians, would probably be 
found in the short-lived character of their paternal 
affections, which hardly survive the period that is 
absolutely necessary for the preservation of the 
species. The savage, during the infancy of his 
offspring, is not deficient in natural affection ; but, 
although he has rarely above three children, his 
solicitude dies away by the time a child is of years 
and strength to provide for its own subsistence. No 
anxiety is felt, or pains taken about the youth's 
morals, or even his training for the chase, which he 
becomes expert in, or not, as his natural disposition 
may happen to tend. So little care, indeed, is 
usually evinced, that it almost leads one to question. 

86 THB emigrant's introduction. 

whether the permanence of those affections, which, 
among a civilized people, appear to endure through 
every period of life, is not rather the consequence of 
the longer duration of that helpless condition which 
is inseparable from a state of civilization, with the 
moral obligation, subjected to reason, than from 
the natural retention of those feelings which are 
never wanting towards infants, but among the most 
depraved and abandoned of mankind. 

If these remarks be well founded, the fii'st step 
towards the accomplishment of this great object, 
would be to find some means of prolonging, or 
some substitute for the want of, those affections or 
those moral sentiments, which, among a civilized 
people, surmount every obstacle during the age 
of necessary dependence, and finally settle into a 
friendship the most pure and unchangeable of any 
natural feeling that belongs to us in this imperfect 

Were this a place to enter upon speculations of 
this sort, some suggestions might be thrown out, 
for a plan for improving the conditions of the 
Indians by educating the women. The tenderness 
of the mother is, in the forest as every where else, 
much more lasting, if not stronger, than that of the 
parent of the other sex. Advantage might be taken 
of the kind and compliant dispositions of the Indian 
women, and the great object perhaps effected, with 
greater facility than is apparent to a casual observer. 
The Indian boy thinks it effeminate and degrading, 
to submit to the discipline which is necessary to 

TBS emighamt's imtroductiok. 97 

i^btain instmction, and while the father is hunting, 
or enjoying the luxury of rest without care or 
thought, the son will not be controlled. A very 
little persuasion would induce the mothers, and 
perhaps even the sterner parent, to second any 
measures to convey instruction to their more trac- 
table daughters ; and if these of the rising genera- 
tion, were taught the elements of useiul knowledge, 
the wandering hunter of the succeeding, would be 
easily humanized through the influence of his more 
tender parent. By this means, education and its 
attendant blessings might be spread among a whole 
race, and entire nations might be reclaimed from 
barbarity and ignorance, and perhaps rescued from 
that ruin and speedy extirpation, which every 
writer on America has predicted as their indubitable 

The character of the men indeed, is not a soil in- 
capable of culture, but the tares of European im- 
morality which have been sown in the American 
forest, have brought forth the destructive fruit of 
inebriety, with other vices, which have greatly 
tended to arrest the progress of improvement and 
debase the Indian name. It is remarkable, however, 
that the women, who are subjected to every species 
of drudgery, and who are the slaves, rather than 
the companions of the men, have retained much of 
their ancient character, which was highly &vorable 
to the admission of every species of useful know- 
ledge, or of even the higher degrees of the more 
refined systems of ethic&u . It would be, to .employ 



but poor expressions, to say, that they are sober, 
and ehaste, and modest. They possess a delicacy of 
feeling and a sense of correct morals, wbich coald 
not fail to win the love and admiration of aU who 
are not dead to CTcry sense of sweetness in the 
female character in its. native simplicity and se- 
ducing undress. The soft notes and melody of 
their Toices, are the index, the allusive picture, 
that indicates the contents of the closed volume 
of their fine minds, which, were it opened, wonld 
discover a beautiftil sequel, in a fine and delicate 
sense of every thing that is lovely and engaging, 
with a surprising susceptibility to receive the most 
desirable impressions. 

The most remarkable of the Indian nations now 
&miliarized with the colonists, are the Hurons, the 
Mohawks, and the Micmacs. The Hurons origi- 
nally inhabited the shores of the great lake which 
bears their name ; but they were driven from their 
country by the Iroquois, and were the first of the 
Indian tribes that formed an alliance with the 
French after the settlement of Canada. The Mo- 
hawks were one of the celebrated Six Nations, five 
of which had been long united. The territory of 
the six tribes extended three hundred miles west of 
Lake Champlain, and round the Lakes Ontario and 
Erie. The Mohawks formed an alliance with the 
early English settles, and served in their ranks with 
great fidelity in many a bloody field. The Micmacs 
possessed the more eastern country, over which they 
are still thinly scattered. . 


Almost all that remain of theae Indians, have, by 
the unwearied exertions of the catholic priests, been 
conrerted to Christianity, at least in name. But it 
is no reproach to these zealous divines, that their 
benevolent endearours have not been attended with 
complete success. The difficulties, indeed, which 
they have hitherto encountered, afford a proof, that 
some degree of knowledge must be imparted, and 
that the savage must be reclaimed firom his wander- 
ing life, and taught to till the ground, before we can 
insure the successful introduction of Christianity ; 
and these objects, it is not in the power of the 
located clergy to effect, who have usually the most 
arduous duties to perform in behalf of their own 
countrymen. The church, however, in the earlier 
stages of its constitutional progress, by its external 
show, and the imposing effect of its mysterious cere* 
monies, is possibly better adapted to the Indian 
disposition, than as it exists among christians who 
have laid aside the ancient rites and forms of 
worship, as unnecessary to the religious ceremonials 
of a polite people in a philosophic age. 

The southern and inhabited portion of the 
American possessions, is divided into six provinces 
or colonies: Lower Canada, including the large but 
uninhabited Island of Anticosti; Upper Canada, 
Nova Scotia with the Island of Cape Breton, New 
Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfound- 
land. Each of these, has its parliament and inter- 
nal government independent of every other, with 
its constitation framed upon the model of that of the 


100 THE emigrant's iktrodvction. 

mother-country ; the powers representing the three 
estates of the British parliament being vested in a 
governor, a legislative council, and a house of 
assembly. But the governor of Lower Canada is 
entitled. His Excellency the Governor-General and 
Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's dominions in 
North America, and has a jurisdiction, in cases of 
emergency, over all the provinces. 

Each of the other governors, is distinguished by 
the title of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, 
Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral of the pro- 
vince over which he presides^ and its dependencies ; 
and, within the limits of his own immediate govern- 
ment, he exercises the most important functions of 
the supreme authority, as the representative of the 
King of Great Britain. But in the performance of 
these high and responsible duties, he is assisted by 
the advice of an executive council, the members of 
which are usually nominated by himself, and ap- 
pointed by the king's mandamus^ and are styled 
honorable. This body represents the privy-council 
of the imperial government, and is, in the Canadas 
and New Brunswick, distinct from the legislative 
upper house; but, in Nova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island, the legislative councils assume the 
executive functions, and sit but in another capacity 
when they become the counselloi^ of the crown. 

Invested with these sovereign functions, the 
colonial representative of His Majesty, calls his 
parliament together, prorogues and dissolves it at 
pleasure, and commands the militia and regular 


military forces in the province. Yet are these 
powers so happily placed beyond the chances of 
protracted misuse, that in case of their being abused, 
the colonists have an appeal to that incorruptible 
source of authority to which they have never ap- 
pealed in vain — the imperial parliament, or the 

The legislative councils are constituted, like the 
executive, by appointment of the governors, subject 
to His Msgesty's approval, and the members of this 
body, also, are styled honorable. They are invested 
with the legislative powers of the House of Lords. 

The assemblies, which are composed of the repre- 
sentatives of the towns and counties, are chosen 
after the same forms, and enjoy the same privileges, 
as the House of Commons in England. 

So justly cin^umscribed, and so admirable adap- 
ted, to at least the infancy of a colony, are the limits 
of independence which these provinces in their 
political relations to the parent state enjoy, that 
while the true interests of the colonists alone en- 
gage the attention of the provincial legislators, 
every thing proceeds smoothly and uninterruptedly ; 
but upon the first symptoms of discontent, arising 
from the arbitrary temper and conduct of the execu- 
tive officer, or from the inexperience of the members 
of the representative body, the chief sources from 
which evil has been observed to spring, the remedy 
is to be found, in the reserve to the crown of the 
supreme authority, which may establish the rights 
of British subjects in the former case, and timely 


point out the errors and the prohable consequenceB 
of inexperience, in the latter. 

But it might yet be shown, did not the plan and 
limits of this undertaking forbid the attempt, that 
a well-framed federal union, or some closer league 
than at present exists between the several American 
provinces, would tend to more firmly cement the 
existing ties between the mother-country and her 
colonies, so advantageous to all parties to preserve. 
Such a measure, judiciously contrived and delibe- 
rately adopted, would likewise fecilitate commerce, 
and be productive of all the usual benefits of a com- 
bination of interests. It' would contribute, at the 
same time, to the durability of the present secure 
condition of these colonies, to the preservation of 
the existing common good understanding in their 
relations to each other, and to their prosperity and 
independence in a future age. 

But it is time to proceed to the consideration of 
such matters, as separately, and in a more particular 
manner, concern the condition and interests of each 
of these colonies. 



Lower Canada.— General Descrlption.-~Re]nainfl of Feudal Insti- 
tutions.— I)ivi«ion.— St. Lawrence.— Qnebec—FallB of Montmo- 
rency.— Viclmty of the Ghreat Porert.— Three Rlyers.- Montreal 
and ita '^HUsinity.- St. Franda.-^liei1>rooke.— Port St. FrandB.— - 
CHnuite.— Go?emmest.— Jiiri8pnid6Bee.*-Beyenae.— Cdmmeree. 
— Mann&ctures. — Population. — Language. — Mixed Character 
and Origin of the Settlers.— It's Disadvantages.— Amusements.— 
IbraTelling.-^-Steam Kayigation. 


I:^ we regard population tuoA commerce, and those 
other sources of national wealth which it at this 
time enjoys, is the most important of the American 
pyovinces. It is bounded on the south by the 
province of New Brunswick and the State of New 
York, its western extremity being as far south as 
the latitude of 45^. On the north, the boundaries 
are not well defined. In length, it extends about 
600 miles, measuring from its eastern limits upon 
the Oulf of St. Lawrence, to a short distance above 
the point of junction of the rivers Ottawa and 
St. Lawrence ; but, it includes the country further 
westward along the left bank of the Ottawa, which 
river, forms the great line of demarcation between 
the upper and lower provinces. It contains several 
flourishing towns, which are situated upon the 

104 THE emigrant's iktrobuctiok. 

St. Lawrence; the principal of these are, Quebec the 
capital, and Montreal. It has five grand depart- 
ments, called the districts of Gasp£, Quebec, Three 
Rivers, Montreal, and St. Francis. These are 
divided into counties, and subdivided into seigni- 
ories, or townships. In the seigniories, the civil 
law in all matters concerning landed property, with 
the ancient customs of the feudal system, is re- 
tained; while the townships enjoy the benefit of 
institutions more congenial with our English habits 
and feelings at the present day. 

The French, as we have already seen, were the 
first Europeans who settled in Canada, the fairest 
part of which, especially on the St. Lawrence, they 
granted out into seigniories, of which the lords or 
seigneurs held their lands ert fiefe; that is, under 
conditions of service to the crown. The estates 
were again portioned out into tenanders^ which 
were held under the seigneurs en roture; that is, 
subject to certain conditions of feudal homage, 
besides ordinary rent. Neither those in possession, 
or the tenures by which they hdd, have been dis- 
turbed by the English; so that the greater part 
of the country which fronts upon the St. Lawrence, 
and such situations, as in a new country are con- 
sidered most desirable for the first formation of 
settlements, are pre-occupied, or at l^ast, subject to 
laws which present an almost insurmountable ob- 
stacle to the British settler's location. In the. rear 
however of the seigniories, extensive and valuable 
tracts remained ungranted. These have been wisely 

THB emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 105 

parcelled out by goyernment into townships, and ai*e 
sold, or conferred by grants, with reserves, and 
subject to such conditions as are unobjectionable. A 
few observations concerning the relative advantages 
of each of these districts, will put the reader in pos- 
session of. as much information concerning this 
province, as will be necessary to enable him to 
weigh the justice of those remarks, which, after 
having pursued the same course with regard to the 
rest of these colonies, will be made respecting the 
comparative advantages of each, in reference to the in- 
clination, habits, or capacity of the European settler. 
We may begin with Gasp^, which is the most 
northern, as well as the most eastern portion of all 
Canada. Here the population is yet inconsiderable. 
The greater part of its shores upon the river and 
gulf of St. Lawrence, being barren, or producing 
nothing but dwarf vegetation, offers little temptation 
to the agricultural English emigrant. Within the 
Bay of Chaleur, which forms the southern coast of 
this district, there are several tracts that offer better 
prospects ; but the interior, where the best land has 
been discovered, is not likely to be for many years 
an object of inquiry, although the bay above- 
mentioned has the, advantage of several good 
harbours. A coast abpunding in fish, has here pro- 
duced establishments, out of which has arisen a 
trade of great value to the colony. The River 
Restiqouche, which empties itself into Chaleur Bay, 
divides this province from New Brunswick, and 
affords the means of conveying timber, which 

F 5 


ftboonds in the country to the west, down to the sea- 
port, whence it is ea^ported to Engknd in consider- 
able quantities. 

Ascending the St. Lawrence, above the western 
boundary of Gasp^, we arrive at the district of 
Quebec, which is the most extensive of the five 
grand divisions of the province. But as the lands 
which front upon the rivers, and indeed all the 
most valuable tracts, are held under the objectionable 
tenure above-mentioned, it will not be necessary to 
detain the reader with any lengthy details, alto- 
gether inapplicable to his situation, or but remotely 
connected with the proper subject of his inquiries 
concerning the new world; yet, as we are now 
arrived.within the precincts of the capital, a brief 
survey of this striking city and its approaches 
should not be omitted. 

About forty miles below Quebec, the river 
becomes narrow enough to lose, in somed^ree, the 
appearance of the sea or some great lake. As you 
proceed, it gradually contracts in width to about ten 
miles, and is soon afterwards divided by the Island 
of Orleans into two channels. This island is twenty 
miles in length, its south-western point bemg in sight 
from the city. It forms the two entrances into a 
spacious and beautiful basin, which nature, witii 
lavish hand, has on every side surrounded with her 
richest and most gorgeous scenery. Hie prospect 
remains too vividly impressed upon the memory 
of those who have once witnessed it, to be ever 
effiiced ; and, as the feelings of the emigrant are not 

THB bmigrant's imtaoduction. 107 

to be difir^gardedy as indifferent^ or wholly un- 
connected with the more necessary matters to be 
considered by those who contemplate taking up 
their abode in the American forest, the reader will 
the more readily forgive a casual allusion to the 
writer's own first impressions of this part of 
America, and to those of the emigrants whose 
emotions he had the opportunity of witnessing. 

On a fine and still morning in June, our vessel 
rounded Point Levi, and floated into the basin of 
Quebec, almost without the assistance of the wind. 
The flood-tide was near the turn ; so that we lay 
motionless upon the calm bosom of the seeming 
lake, long enough to contemplate the surrounding 
scenery, and indulge in that enthusiasm, which, if 
natural amidst the most grand and sublime objects 
of ocmtemplation at anytime, how much heightened 
by the crowd of remembrances which a return to 
land recalled, and the many living portraits of admi- 
ration, intermingled with hope, which this scene at 
the same time presented. We seemed transported, 
as it were by magic, from the tiresome sameness 
and unvarying prospect of sea and sky, into the 
midst of a romantic country, where, on a sudden, 
we. were surrounded by the most striking and 
beautiful objects, within view of the capital of the 
province which was designed to become the adopted 
country of many who now beheld it for the first 
time, and the native land of their children's children 
m succeeding generations. 


The following beautiful lines, from Cowper, are 
strikingly illustrative of the scenery of this vicinity : 

'^ See natnre gay^ as when she first began. 

With smiles alluring her admirer, Man ; 

Banks clothed with flowers, groves filled with sprightly sounds. 

The yellow tilth, green meads, rocks, rising grounds, 

Streams edged with osiers fattening every field. 

Where'er they flow, now seen, and now concealed. 

From the blue rim where skies and mountains meet, 

Down to the very turf beneath thy feet." 

The sun had just risen above the distant moun* 
tains in the north-east, darting his rays against the 
lofty citadel, and the sparkling tinned spires and 
house-tops, exhibited a brilliant spectacle, as the 
precipitous cliffs, upon which the upper town with 
the impregnable fortress which commands it is 
entirely built, slowly opening to the view, added 
these noble achievements of art, to the magnifience 
of nature, in the gorgeous scenery which she on 
all sides displays. A hundred bosoms beat with 
grateful emotions, and many gave way to passionate 
exclamations of astonishment and delight, much 
more beyond the writer's powers to describe, than out 
of the course of those matters most worthy the emi- 
grant's investigations. Let it suffice to say, that he 
who contemplates taking the same voyage for the 
same ends, and would desire to experience by antici- 
pation, the emotions which his situation may inspire, 
must, without forgetting the ties which bind him to the 
land of his nativity, suppose his most acute feelings 


a little weakened by distance and reflection, while 
his inind is prepared for new sentiments, equally 
generoas, and more powerful, with an active and 
energetic spirit, long impatient of constraint. He 
may then paint to his imagination, the sensations 
which his natural disposition, combined with his 
remembrances and hopes, may cause him to expe- 
rience on his arrival in Canada. 

As every one to whom a day or two is no great 
object, ought to spend at least that time in exploring 
the fitmous city and citadel of Quebec, one or two 
more observations may not be irrelative. 

Quebec is the residence of the Governor-General 
of British North America, and is the strongest po- 
sition, if we may except the fortress of Gibraltar, 
which exists in the British dominions, or perhaps 
in the world. It stands upon a bluff point of table 
land, stretching out into the St. Lawrence, and con- 
sists of an upper and lower town, and extensive 
suburbs, commanded by the fortifications. The up- 
per town is open and agreeable ; but the lower, 
which is built beneath the cliffs, along the shores of 
the great river, is dirty and inconvenient. * The sub- 
urb of St. Louis, is pleasantly situated between the 
walls of the city and the plains of Abraham, upon 
elevated but level ground. Those of St. John imd 
&U Roak, are on the descent, in the direction of the 
river St. Charles, the latter stretching along the 
banks of that river. The more wealthy of the citi- 
zens resort to the suburb of St; Louis, which is the 
most elevated and open ; but the population of St. 


Johti'«» as well as that of St. Rock, is much more 
considerable. These suburbs are separated fromnthe 
town by an open space, of less than a gun-shot in 

In the direction of the plains, the wall^ overlook 
the ground where Wolfe and Montcalm, the Eng- 
lish and French commanders, both fell, in the 
memorable battle which decided the fate of Canada, 
and terminated the bloody contests of the rival Eu- 
ropean powers in that quarter of the globe. Since 
the conquest, the original walls have been contracted, 
and a citadel has beoi built upon an eminence ccmh- 
manding the upper, as well as lower town, and which 
is not perhaps surpassed, either in beauty or strength, 
by any work of the kind in the known world. 

The resident population of Quebec, is about eight 
and twenty thousand ; but during the summer, there 
are usually from five to ten thousand strangers in the 
city. These chiefly consist of siulors and passing 
emigrants. A considerable number of the citizens 
of the neighbouring republics also visit Quebec at 
this season, some, for the purposes of commerce, 
which is not, however, through its legal channels, 
carried on to any great extent between the two 
countries, but the greater number, attracted by their 
curiosity to view the noble fortress of the capital of 
our American possessions. These latter, who are 
usually from among the elite of the republicans, 
seem to eiyoy their intercourse with a people of the 
same origin with themselves, but which still ac* 
knowledge, with pride, their connection with the 

TBB bmiobast's ibtboduotiok. Ill 

oommon parent, from which so many colonies and 
states hare sprang. 

The inhabitants of Quebec, except the merchants 
and those holding oiScial situations, and the military, 
are for the most part of French attraction, and are 
called Canadians ; a term, not usually applied to 
the Bnglish colonists, or eren their descendants. 
The Canadians are proud of their country, and look 
with extreme jealousy upon every innovation which 
they suppose to result from the increase or influence 
of English settlers. 

Several considerable rivers empty themselves into 
the St. Lawrence, in the vicinity of the capital. The 
Montmorency falls over a precipice of the height of 
240 feet, into the great stream, directly opposite the 
western point of the island of Orleans, about nine 
miles distant from Quebec; and the St. Charles 
skirts the town to the north-east, and contributes to 
its security. The Chaudi^re also, with its magnifi- 
cent fidls, contributes to the sublimity of the scenery 
of the vicinity. The St. Lawrence is here so deep, 
and the current so strong, that diips are not able to 
moor in the stream ; but along the shores of the 
lower town, and in Wolfe's cove, stretching several 
miles above the fort, any number may lie at all times 
in perfect security. 

But to return to those matters more directly con- 
dttsive to the solution of the question which is sup- 
posed to be the reader's chief object in perusing 
these pages. 

Notwithstanding the disadvantages which have 

112 TBB emigrant's imtbobuction. 

been mentioned, as attending those lands held under 
the feudal tenure, as some part of this extensive 
district is free from that inconvenience, a few words 
concerning the English portions will be proper, be* 
fore descending to particulars relating to the more 
favored countries upon the St. Lawrence. 

North of Quebec, the Canadian settlements do not 
extend above eight or ten miles. At Beauport, with- 
in five miles of the town, you may enter the forest, 
which does not terminate until it reaches the waters 
of Hudson's Bay, or the seas discovered during the 
late arctic expeditions, or until vegetation disappears, 
and beyond which latitudes there is no probability 
that human beings exist. An Irish settlement has 
been formed at the back of the seigniories in the 
vicinity of the capital, and is reported to thrive. 
Lorette, an Indian village, lies on the borders of the 
woods about five miles from Quebec. On the south, 
the Chaudi^re flows through a fertile country, pre- 
senting no diflSiculties or bars to settlement; but 
very ineffectual measures have been yet taken to 
colonize this convenient tract. Government, how- 
ever, are becoming more alive to the importance of 
settling this district, for the security of Canada 
agaiBBt a foreign enemy, and will no doubt act with 
judgment and foresight, when active measures shall 
be determined upon. Several of the township 
counties of this district, are however, mountainous 
and unfit for cultivation. 

Proceeding up the St. Lawrence, we cross the 
boundary line between the district of three rivers. 


and that which has been last mentioned, about ninety 
miles from Quebec. The capital town, which is of 
the same name with this district, is situated upon 
the north bank of the St. Lawrence. No place has 
a less inviting appearance to agriculturists. The 
country which surrounds it, is uninteresting, and the 
soil, sandy and barren ; but the quantity and quality 
of the iron ore found in its neighbourhood, and the 
consequent establishment of foundaries and foi^es, 
have given the appearance of a place of business to 
the front of the town. Its population is about 2000 
souls. It has a nunnery, to which extensive grounds 
are attached. The vicinity of the river, as in the 
district below, is entirely pre-occupied by the seig- 
niories ; but beyond these, to the south, there is a fine 
tract of country, laid out in townships^ and well 
adapted for English settlers. 

Before we reach William Henry or Sorel, a small 
town at the mouth of the Richelieu, we shall have 
crossed the division line between the districts of three 
rivers and Montreal. Montreal is, next to Quebec, 
the largest of those departments into which Lower 
Canada is divided ; it extends to the borders of the 
Hfidson's Bay territory to the north; and in the 
opposite direction, about sixty miles south-east of 
the great river, and includes the island of Montreal, 
and Isle, Jesus, on the former of which is situated 
the city of Montreal. Montreal is inferior to Que- 
bec in general interest, but is the rival of the capital 
in commerce,, and possesses a population somewhat 
larger, with superior streets and private dwellings* 


The rendeat inhalntaiits are about tiro-thiTds of 
Frencli descent, and the rest British, witk some 

At the back ef the town rises an abrupt high hill, 
nearly covered with wood, called the Mountain of 
Montreal. From the highest emmence on its sooth 
side, at which observation may be ti^en, there is 
a magnificent prospect of the sarronnding country, 
with the St. Lawrence and the rapids of La Chine« 
lliis hill or mountain is no doubt the site of a fature 
impregnable citadel. 

The vicinity of the city is weU settled, but the 
land is badly cultivated. The soil is exceedingly 
good, and the climate is milder than that of the dis- 
tricts below; and, were the island free from the feudal 
Inconveniences, it would afford great encouragement 
to such of our agriculturists as carry out capital 
enough to purchase farms unencumb^^d with trees. 
Tliere are, however, immense tracts- in this dis- 
trict, both north and south of the St« Lawrence, 
unappropriated, and subject to the British laws 

The vieinity ot these townships to a flourishing 
commercial town, where there are ezcell^it mariKets, 
is worthy the Emigrant's notice; for, to the disgrace 
of the Canadians, Montreal has been in a great 
degree dependent for its indispensable supplies, 
upon the United States fitrmers from the shored 
of Lake Champlain. This pemiciouB interoourse 
takes place during the season, when the snow 
roads afford great fkcilities for transport. 

Tfls bmiobaht's IVnODOCTIOlV. 116 

Few parte <^ Canada offer more claiiiis to public 
attention tkan the waste lands of Montreal, espe* 
cially those whieh have been laid oat upon the 
Ottawa, and which front up<m that noble tributary 
of the great American stream, and hare not been 
granted in sdgniorieB« 

The country to ibe south of the St. Lawroiee is 
fertile but rath^ flat» though occasionally varied by 
ridges and eminences; but where the land is high* 
est, it is in many places stoney, and unfit for culti* 
vation. There are several roads intersecting the 
country in different directions. On the north, the 
townships contain much good land ; and, as there are 
lakes, cataracts, and rapids of every character, and 
several ranges of mountains, the country is in 
general picturesque and romantic. The nearest 
Indian village to the town of Montreal is Caughna- 
waga, on the south banks of the St. Lawrence, 
above the rapids of La Chine. 

It remains but to speak of the district of St. 
Francis, the only department of Lower Canada, en^* 
tirely unincumbered wiHi the inconveniences of the 
feudal institutions. Here the lands are all held in 
free and common socci^e, l&e titles being derived 
directly from the crown ; and, as some of the town- 
ships of this department, have lately become the 
property of a land company, formed upon the same 
principles as that established in the sister province 
and which has been of so much benefit, alike to the 
new settler and the public, and as this company has 
already entered upon the same generous course of 


colonization, and is establisfaing settlements, after 
the same liberal system as their rivals in enterprise, 
it may be useful, to be a little more particular in 
the topographical description of the counties, and 
townships of this department. 

The district of St. Francis, or the country of the 
eastern townships, as it is more commonly called in 
Canada, lies between the river Chandi^re, and the 
Richelieu which connects lake Champlain with the 
river St. Lawrence. It is bounded by the districts of 
Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal, on the east, 
north, and west ; and by the State of Vermont on 
the south. It is divided into counties, which are 
Again subdivided into townships, as in those parts of 
the other districts where lands are not held under 
the feudal tenure. The river St. Francis flows 
through this territory, nearly dividing it into two 
equal parts ; but this river is unfortunately not na- 
vigable at its entrance. The greater portion of this 
department is beautifully undulated, and watered 
by innumerable streams, which meander through a 
naturally-fruitful country. It has also several lakes ; 
Memphramagog, the largest of these, is about thirty 
miles long, and from three to six broad, and is sur- 
rounded with rugged and romantic scenery.* 

Sherbrooke is the largest county in this district. 

♦Lord Aylmer, the late go?emor-general, in reference to the pro- 
vince under his inunedlate gOYemment, in^ dispatch to the Colo- 
nial Secretary, dated Quebec, 12th Oct. 1831, speaks of this portion 
of the country as follows : 

" The country which goes under the name of the townships, ap- 

THB emigrant's istrobuctiov. 117 

being about Beventy miles in length, and upwards of 
fifty in breadth. It contains twenty-eight town- 
ships, the most of which are equal in soil to the 
best tracts in Canada. The timber with which it is 
covered, is of that species which in general indicates 
the greatest fertility. The best-settled parts of this 
country lie along the shores of the St. Francis; and 
here the natural beauty of the scenery exhibits pros- 
pects of no ordinary interest, while the rewards of 
industry which are visible in every direction, give 
the most cheering indications of advancing prospe- 
rity. It contains several thriving towns, of which 
the principal are, Compton, Ascot, Eaton, Shipton, 
and Melbourne. 

The capital of the district, which is of the same 
name with this county, is situated upon the river 
Magog, at its point of junction with the St. Francis. 
It contains, at present, but a very inconsiderable 
population, but its advantageous situation will in- 
sure its rapid increase. It has already several of the 
buildings essential to the capital of a district, and 
three places of worship, Catholic, Episcopalian, and 
Dissenting. There is also a court-house; and a dis- 
trict judge resides at Sherbrooke, who has jurisdic- 
tion in personal matters not exceeding the value of 

pean to me the most eligible for settlement of any I have yet vlBited. 
The climate is represented as healthy in a very remarkable degree; 
the son fertile, and abounding in forest-trees of the finest growth, and 
of the most usefdl description, with great fiicilities of water oommn- 
nication by means of rivers and lakes.'' 


£20 ; and there are two circuit courts held here» by 
the judges of the province. There is likewise a 
college, at which the best education may be obtained. 
A printing-office has also lately been established; 
and a weekly newspaper, devoted to the interests 
of agriculture, is published here, and distributed 
throughout the counties; and there are saw and 
grist mills, and a woollen &ctory. 

But, above all, Sherbrooke has the advantage of 
being seated in a country possessing the highest 
capabilities of agricultural improvement; and there 
are some farms to be seen in its vicinity, in a state 
of cultivation not surpassed by any in Canada. It 
is about one hundred miles from Quebec, and the 
same distance from Montreal, and about seventy 
from Port St. Francis, to which there will ere long 
be a railway. With each of these places there is 
regular intercourse by stages, and the roads are 
in general better than those which connect the 
populous settlements in the United States. 

Port St. Francis is a new establishment of the 
company above-mentioned. It is situated at JPahu 
au Sable J at the entrance of Lake St. Peter on the 
St. Lawrence, about eight or nine miles above Three 
Rivers. This port will prove a great conYeniesee 
to the settlers throughout the whole district. Steam- 
boats, which pass between Quebec and Montreal, 
touch here daily, and it will, ere long, become the 
trading capital of this section of the country, and 
the dep6t of its surpli^s produce. Another com- 
mercial town will thus be added to the two busy 

THX bmioraht's ihrtoductiok. 119 

cities which relieve the wild and sometimes gloomy 
scenery of the Btupendous St. Lawrence. 

Directly south of Sherbrooke lies the county of 
Stanstead. It contains the townships of Potten, 
Stanstead, Barford, Bolton, and Hatley. In extent 
it is greatly inferior to the county of Sherbrooke, 
but its townships do not yield to any, in the richness 
mi beauty of the forest land, while they are, at the 
same time, better settled than any other part of the 
district. The principal town, which is called 
Stanstead, is situated upon the very borders of the 
province. It is at present lai^r than Sherbrooke, 
and is the focus of intercourse, and of such trade as 
bas arisen between this part of the province and the 
neighbouring states of the union. There is a 
weekly newspaper published here. 

The county of Shefford lies between the River 
St« Lawrence and the two counties last-mentioned, 
and is, in point of dimensions, inferior to the formier, 
but superior to the latter. It contains the towb- 
diips of Famham, Brome, Granby, Shefford, 
Stcikely, Milton, Roxby, and Ely. The &ce of 
die country possesses the varieties of hill and dale, 
wiA loamy and fine mould soils, in common with 
those already described. It is also watered by 
several streams, which run into the Yamaska, and 
thence into the Lake St. Peter*s. It has a local 
advantage over Sherbrooke and Stanstead, in being 
nearer Montreal, which is, and will be, whether for 
export or consumption, the principal market for 
the produce of the land about its vicinity. 

120 THE emigrant's introductiok. 

The county of Miseisqui lies between Stanstead 
and the Seigniories. It is inferior in dimensions to 
those above-mentioned, but is equally well watered 
with the county of Shefford. It is intersected with 
roads, and has large tracts of well-wooded and good 
land. Durham and Sutton are its most-improved 

The county of Drummond comprehends the 
great tract of country lying between the counties of 
Shefford and Sherbrooke, and the Seigniories. It 
possesses high and low lands, and is well watered 
by the St. Francis, which flows through its centre, 
and numerous other streams. Among the most- 
improved townships are Orantham, Ashton, and 
Shipton, but there are several others of equal 

The county Megantic, which lies between those 
which have been described and the Chaudi^re, is 
very little improved, and perhaps possesses inferior 
advantages to any of the other counties. 

As the province of Lower Canada lies between 
the latitudes of forty-four and forty-nine degrees 
north, the average of its temperature is colder than 
that of the upper countries, or those which lie upon 
the coast of the Atlantic ; but although the summer 
in its most northern districts is extremely short, the 
warmth during the months of July and August^ is 
sufficient to ripen several of the fruits in the open 
air, "^hich, in England, are not reared without arti- 
ficial heat and great care, within doors. The days, 
however, at Quebec, which is situated below the 

THE emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 121 

parallel of 47^, are of course longer during winter 
than we experience at the same season in any 
part of Britain. The autumn is usually serene, and 
the weather is not colder than in this country, until 
the setting-in of the winter, which generally takes 
place about the middle of November, when the snow 
falls, and the rivers freeze over, the snow very 
seldom melting, or the waters becoming navigable, 
before the beginnuig of May. Early in this month 
the summer again bursts forth, hardly preceded by 
any intervenient season. 

These remarks, however, with the exception of 
that which regards the quick transition from winter 
to summer, which, as already observed, is common all 
over North America, must not be considered as ap- 
plicable to the extremities of this province, which, 
besides the difference of latitude, are influenced by 
other causes, of themselves sufficient to account for 
the mildness of the southern portions, in comparison 
with the most northern. The latter are situated 
upon the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and exposed to the 
influence of winds which frequently bring dampness 
and fog upon the coast ; while the former, being 
some hundreds of miles inland, do not experience this 
inconvenience ; at the same time, they receive the 
more vertical rays of the sun. 

The cold, however, which is general during the 
severest season, as far as comfort is concerned, is 
much more easy to guard against than the damp 
and disagreeable chills so common in England, and 
is assuredly Less inconvenient. The method of warm-^ 


ing the houses, and the mode of trayellhig ; in short, 
all the habits of the colonists, have so adapted them- 
selves to the difference and variation of temperature, 
that the frost which shuts up the rivers, and the 
snow-storms which so change the face of the country, 
bring with them no alarms ; nor are they indeed of 
that terrific and dangerous character, which to an 
tintravelled fancy they are apt to appear, or accom- 
panied with those inconveniences which would at- 
tend them in Britain. 

The storms in Canada proceed from the east, but 
while the more constant westerly winds prevail, the 
clearness of the atmosphere, and the brilliancy of 
the heavens, are particularly striking; and wJien 
the moon at the full is in the meridian, you may 
read a news-paper at midnight with the greatest 
ease, as in travelling through tiie woods you smoothly 
glide over the snow. The great English astronomer, 
as soon as he has finished his observations at the 
Cape, should extend his travels to Canada, if it were 
only to see our January moon. 

After what has been . said, concerning the 
provincial constitutions, it will not be necessary to 
notice such inunaterial variations as exist in any of 
the particular governments, but a few observatioDS 
may be made upon the nature of some of their inati* 

The courts of judicature in Lower Caiiada, consist, 
of a Court of Chancery ; a Supreme Court, or Court 
of ELing's Bench ; a Court of Appeals ; «nd a Court 
of Vice- Admiralty . 

TUB emigrant's INTRODUCTION. . 123 

In Ae Court of Chancery the Governor presides 
as Chancellor. 

The Supreme Court is held at Quebec and Mon- 
treal, where the chief-justice of the province, and the 
chief-justiceof Montreal, severally, with three puisne 
judges preside. Cognizance is here taken of all suits 
at law above the value of £10, as well as all crimi- 
nal matters whatsoever. There are also district 
courts, and inferior judges throughout the province. 

The Court of Apjieals is composed of the governor, 
the ehief«justice, and the members of the executive 
council ; and its decisions are governed by prece- 
dents, from the abjudication of the House of Lords. 

The Court of Vice-Admiralty, which has generally 
been presided over by men of little experience, and 
of mean capacity, is considered by the commercial 
part of the population, and not without reason, to be 
the greatest and most unnecessary evil in the colony. 

There are inferior courts, for the disposal of mat- 
ters of smaller importance ; but they are far from 
being of that well-defined and simple character, 
which prevails with those in the other provinces. 
This arises out of the desire to amalgamate the hete- 
rogeneous materials of English, French, Roman, and 
Colonial origii;^al, and is productive of inconveni- 
ences, that, together with the tenures by which the 
best estates are held of the seigniors, who are the 
feudal lords of a considerable portion of the pxovince, 
present a great objection to the settlement <^f emi- 
grants, while they have the choice of situations where 
the prevailing institutions are almost purely English. 

6 2 

124 THE emigrant's introductiok. 

There are no assessed taxes, properly so called. In 
this or any of the provinces. The revenues of the 
provincial governments are for the most part raised 
by impost duties, which are usually levied upon the 
most unnecessary or most pernicious articles of con- 
sumption, such as tobacco and spirits, and appropri- 
ated by the representative assembly, with whom all 
money bills must originate, as in the imperial par- 

The present annual revenue of this province, chiefly 
derived from its commerce, amounts to above 
£150,000. It is expended in the furtherance of the 
most necessary national objects ; such as, the main- 
tenance of public seminaries, the erection of public 
buildings, and what of all other things is of the first 
importance, as far as concerns the settlement 
of a new country, — the opening and improvement 
of roads. 

The military establishment is kept up at the ex- 
pense of the Imperial Government, which maintains 
garrisons in the two chief cities above named, as well 
as in several forts of minor importance. The militia 
of the province amounts to about 80 thousand 
eflTective men. 

The commerce of the colony consists in the export 
of timber, furs, wheat, pot and pearl-ash, and the 
import of almost every article manufactured in Great 
Britain. A thousand ships annually visit the ports 
of Quebec and Montreal, for the prosecution of this 
beneficial intercourse. 

The consumption of British goods in this province 

THE emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 125 

does not, however, bear the same proportion to the 
population, as the consumption of our manufac- 
tures in those colonies where the inhabitants are more 
exclusively English. The French descendants, ex- 
cept about the towns, are for the most part, alike 
unacquainted with the luxuries and the wants of the 
more recent settlers, while many of the necessaries 
of life are produced by the extreme industry of their 
women. The prevalence of this system is undoubt- 
edly too great. It is attended with manifest disad- 
vantage, in the loss of time occupied in the manu- 
facture of what might be readily procured of the mer- 
chants and tradesmen. The Canadians never &il to 
acknowledge this when it is pointed out to them, 
but such is the force of habit, that it may be many 
years before the advantages of the proper division 
and appropriation of labour is thoroughly understood 
and practised by the hahitans of Lower Canada. 

The proper manufactures of Canada are inconsi- 
derable, andrare almost wholly for internal consump- 
tion. There are founderies and stove-manufactories 
established at Three Rivers, where iron, as before 
observed, is found of very superior quality and in 
great abundance. And, at Montreal, there is a 
manufactory, where steam-engines are made of 
dimensions and force to suit the enormous boats 
which navigate the Canadian waters ; but they ar« 
not equal itt workmanship to those which are sent 
from England. There are also breweries, distilleries, 
and soap and candle manufactories. 

The population of this province amounts to about 

126 THE bmigrant's IMTRODITCTION'. 

half a million souls> of which abont five-suttfas Bare 
of French extraction. The greater part of these use 
their ancient language, without any knowledge of 
English ; but among the educated classes, and the 
inhabitants of the more considerable towns, where 
the increase of the settlers, and the necessities of 
commerce, have rendered an acquaintance with the 
English language indispensable, our tongue has 
become the language of what may be termed the 
Court, as trell as of the Exchange. 

In Quebec and Montreal, the English, and the 
descendants of English, make up probably about 
one-third of the population, and their language in 
these cities is commonly spoken or understood by 
the grefater patrt of erery class of people, of either 
origin; and some, in extreme youth, are able to 
converse in English or French, with equal fluency 
and correctness. 

In the houses of parliament, and courts of law, 
either of the two languages is accepted impartially, 
and always employed, according to the capability or 
bias of the speaker. But there exists great jealousy 
on the part of the French Canadians, on account of 
the employment of the English tongue, and at every 
step of its progress, they evince a strong desire to 
check thii^ supposed inroad upon their imagined 
right to retain the ancient tongue as the proper 
language of the country. Indeed, so predominant is 
this feeling among the settlers of French origin, and 
consequently in the popular assembly, that in the 
public seminaries, which are dependent upon legis- 


latiTe grants, ih» English bmgoage &aa hardly been 
tau^tt in any other manner than that in which the 
French is tsnght m cnir academies at home. There 
are howCTeir several private schools, condoeted npon 
m(N% liberal principles. 

It is a r^voaeh ta the Britbh ministry of the 
earlier pari of the reign of Gleorge IIL, that the hews 
were not changed in Canada, as in the rest of the 
sabdned provines^ and the colony mode entirely 
British. By the treaty of Paris in: 1763,. the ancient 
cokmists were permitted to retain possession, of their 
estates, and the established code, ia re f erence to 
tenure and titles, was confirmed, and continued to 
be the law of the hind. Thus the French gorem- 
ment, which had originally granted tibe most fertile 
districts of Lower Canada in. extensile scj^iories, 
by the soaae treaty which transferred the soirereignty 
of the country to anetiier power, effectuaUj circum- 
scribed the enterprise of their very conquerors with* 
in the bounds of commercial speculation alone; so 
that, at the present day, the population, and the 
instittttioBs of Lower Canada, are made lip of such 
incongruouff materials, that they present the most 
curious features in cirtliaed society, that is perhaps 
to be met with in the world. 

From this error or n;q;ligence of the government 
o/ that period, has arisen many and great inconve- 
niences. After the taking of Quebec, which virtn* 
ally completed the oirerthrow of the French domi- 
nion in America, the English colonistafrom the more 
genial climates of the south, began to find their way 


to, and plant themselves in the capital of the Cana* 
das. They were not however confounded with the 
ancient settlers, nor did the more numerous inhabi- 
tants imbibe the speculative genius of the English ; 
so that, the descendants of the original settlers of 
the two nations, remain to this day almost as distinct 
races in this colony, as are the English and French 
on this side the sea. 

In the mean time, the English merchants, by their 
industry and enterprise, have acquired wealth, and 
raised themselves to the same rank as the seigniors, 
who cannot be said to represent our aristocracy, in 
a country where the law of primogeniture is un- 
known. The upper house is therefore composed of 
ofRcers of the crown, seigniors, and merchants ; 
component parts as difficult to amalgamate, as those 
of which the bulk of the population consists. In 
this house, there is always a majority in favor of what 
is strangely called the English interests ; and it is 
certain, the representative body must always present 
a very large majority in favor of what is as strangely 
termed the French interests ; and thus the energies 
of the government are constantly repressed, and the 
progress of improvement is effectually interrupted. 
And notwithstanding the increase of settlers, in those 
parts of Lower Canada unclogged with the feudal 
tenures, the proportion of the population of French 
extraction, is still too great in this province to leave 
any reasonable hope of the re-iestablishment of 
unanimity without the interference of the imperial 
parliament, and the institution of such measures as 

TffB emigkakt's introduction. 129 

would presently distinguish the loyal part of the 
Canadians from the disaffected^ if, indeed, there 
really is any rooted disaffection in the colony. The 
French Canadians have never been reconciled to any 
changes hitherto effected by the English, except the 
introduction of the representative system, which 
superceded the arbitrary engines of power by which 
France has been wont to govern her distant pos- 

In spite of these disadvantages, which are certainly 
unfavorable to the progress of knowledge and sci- 
ence, neither polite literature, or the useful arts, or 
the abstract sciences, have been wholly neglected ; 
and the rival cities of Lower Canada may each boast 
of possessing several valuable institutions for the 
encouragement of science and the liberal arts. At 
Quebec, there is a very superior library, containing 
the standard works in both English and French. 
There are also several well-conducted journals in 
each of these cities. The Quebec Gazette, a daily 
paper, appears in either language, alternate days. 
There are also two oi^ three other respectable perio- 
dicals, adapted to the ^'form and pressure of the 
time,** and very well supported. 

The prevailing religion of Lower Canada, is that 
of the Romish church, and the Canadian religious 
establishments are upon the most respectable foot- 
ing. The catholic bishop resides at Quebec, where 
there is a cathedral and several chapels, and also a 
convent. Montreal has likewise its cathedral, 
chapels, and convent. Within the convents, the 



ladies^ Itt well Engl&k as French, obtain the beat 
educ9aticm« The cathedral at Montreal is a spacioas 
gothic boilding, and is said toexceed, in dimension&i, 
every other chnrch in North America, unlesa there 
be an exception in Mexico* 

The amusements of the English colonists consist 
in horse-facing, theatricals, balls, shooting, and 
deer and fox-hunting, in which the Canadians soncie- 
times unite, but rarely with equal enthnsiasna. 
Pic-nic parties are also common, both in summer 
and winter; nssally by water, or in calashes in the 
summer season, and hi carioles in the winter, to 
some farm-house, where they frequently dance until 
the day warns them to break up . There are no game 
law^ in this <^ any of the provinces, except such as 
have been enacted to pi*event wanton destmetion. 
The best travelling during the summer months, 
in this province, as in all America, where it is prac« 
ticable, is by water; steam having acted greatly 
against the improvement of the roads throughout 
the country. The conveniences of water commuiii" 
cation are indeed so great, that Nature seems to 
have designed North America as a field for the full 
operation of steam-machinery, in its application as 
a means of fiiciiitating aquatic intercourse. Be- 
tween Quebec and Montreal, the passing and r^ 
passing of the most splendid steam-vessels is inces- 
sant. Ordinarily two, and sometimes three, boats 
as they are termed, constructed to accommodate 
from five to fifteen hundred passengers, leave Mon* 
treal and Quebec every day. They are superbly 


fitted and well-condacted, and no very serious acci- 
dent has happened since the commencement of steam 

Sach are the chief points of view, as matters of 
general interest, in whidi it seems useful to regard 
the condition and prospects of the lower province. 
The upper country must next be placed in the same 
light, in reference to those circumstances, the re- 
view of which, may be supposed best adapted to 
stamp that just impression of its relative importance 
as a place of setUement, which, in common with 
what is characteristic of each of the provinces, it 
is the aim of these pages to accomplish. 

132 THE emigrant's introduction 



Geographical Description. — DiTision. — Climate. — Agrienltare. ^ 
Soil.-«Goyemment.*-Commerce.— Religion.— State of Education. 

Upper Canada, which is the second of the pro- 
vinces in population and wealth, naturally comes 
next under review. It was separated from the 
lower country by act of parliament, in 1791 ; 
mainly, on account of several essential points in 
which it differs from that earlier settled portion 
of the Canadian territory ; more especially, in 
those particulars which have there retarded the 
progress of improvement and increase of popu- 
lation. But our present inquiry concerns its par- 
tieular claims to attention, in the peculiar advan^ 
tages which its situation, climate, soil, and state of 
society afford, to the hopes of the industrious 

This flourishing province, considered within its 
proper limits, is almost entirely encircled by the 
rivers St. Lawrence and Ottawa, and the lakes 
Ontario, Erie, and Huron. Beyond these bounds, 
to the north, there are no inhabitants, except In- 
dians, and fur-traders, and hunters in the service of 
the Hudson's Bay Company; and those cold and 
dreary regions are too remote from the settlements. 

THB emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 133 

and the interest which they excite, is of too dis- 
tinct a character, to come within the scope of these 

The appearance of the upper country is, in general, 
less mountainous and romantic than that of the 
lower ; hut proceeding westward, the land con- 
tinually rises, sometimes gradually, and sometimes 
abruptly, and the St. Lawrence, no longer navigable 
for ships from the ocean, pours its waters over high 
precipices, and down steep declivities, forming 
cataracts and rapids, in novelty and grandeur, sur- 
passing every other natural phenomenon upon the 
fece of the globe. 

This extensive territory has, within the last few 
years, forced itself by its increase of population, 
upon the attention, as well of the government, as of 
individuals, which renders it necessary, by a short 
topographic description, to distinguish its depart- 
ments, in the same manner as has been dene with 
regard to those of Lower Canada. 

The whole country is divided into eleven districts : 
theEastem,Ottawa, Johnstown, Midland, Newcastle, 
Home, Gore, Niagara, London, and the Western ; 
and each of these is subdivided into townships, ordi- 
narily containing about 60,000 acres. Its principal 
towns, which will be more particularly referred to 
under the head of each division in which they are 
seated, are, Toronto, the capital, Kingston, the naval 
depot of the province, Niagara, and Queenston. 
All of these, except Queenston, are situated upon 
Lake Ontario. 


Tbe eastern district is one of the most inconsider* 
able. It is diyided into twelve townships, some of 
which are tolerably settled. 

The Ottawa lies imHiediately north of the district 
last-mentioned. It is of inferior extent ; but, be- 
sides haying an equal front upon the river of the 
same name, it fronts also upon the Rideau Canal ; 
and these are advantages of considerable importance 
in a thinly-inhabited country. It is divided into 
elerren townships, possessing various soils, with the 
ordinary advantages of a country in general level 
and thickly wooded. The new village of Bytown 
is seated at the end of the steam-navigation, and at 
the entrance of the Rideau, which connects Lake 
Ontario with the ocean, without the interruption of 
rapids or falls, and promises to become of essential 
service to all Canada in time of peace or war. 

Jduistown, which is the next district, proceeding 
westward, is laid out in eighteen townships. It is 
in general a rich and fine country, and has an ex- 
tensive front upon the St. Lawrence. 

Bathurst adjoins Johnstown, and lies immediately 
north of that department. It has an equal extent 
of front upon the Ottawa, and possesses the same 
advantages for settlement. 

The midland district is one of the more extensive 
departments. It fr<mts, both upon the Ottawa river 
and Lake Ontario, and measures about one hundred 
and eoxty miles at its extreme length, and for the 
greater part, from twenly to forty in breadth. Its 
southern portion, which is all that is laid out, is 

THB BinoBAirrV intboductioh. 135 

parcelled into about twentj-eight or thirty town- 
ships. It possesses various soils, and is m general 
a irell-wnoded country, but is very thinly settled. 
The most important settlem^t is at Kingston. 
Eii^ton was the naval station during the last 
American! war, and is, next to Toronto, the most 
busy town in the upper country. In its vicinity 
flourishes a military settlement, chiefly composed of 
disbanded soldiers of the last war, and their de* 

Below Kingston, between the broad sheet of the 
Ontario waters and the noble rapids of the rive? 
St. Lawrence, is situated the Lake of the Thousand 
Islands. It ccmtains, if the accounts of the Canadian 
boatmen may be relied upon, for you cannot number 
them as you sweep down the stream in the batteaux 
of the eouBtry, about fifteen hundred beautiful well* 
wooded isles. 

The Newcastle district is still larger in extent, 
being about one hundred and sixty miles in length, 
and between forty amd fifty in breadth. It fronts 
upon the Ottawa also, and upon Lake Ontario, and 
has the southefn portion only allotted out. It 
eontaina about the same number of townships as the 
last-mentioned district, but it has no town of any 
mp<Mrtaace. It Is well watered, by the Trent in 
particBlar, which empties itself into theSt. Lawrence, 
at the boundary between thisand the midland district. 

The home district, which adjoins Newcastle to the 
west, fit>nts upon Lake Ontario on the south. Its 
well-known and inhabited parts, are bounded on 

136 THE emigrakt's introduction. 

the north by St. Greorge's Bay, which is a branch 
of Lake Huron, while its utmost limits reach the 
French river, which connects the inferior lake 
Nipissing with Lake Huron. It has, moreover, 
within its better known portions, the Lake Simcoe, 
which, from its superior position, is doubtless 
doomed to be the centre of a populous vicinity. It 
is well watered by springs and rivers, which flow- 
through almost every township. 

Within this district, upon Lake Ontario, is seated 
Toronto, the capital of the province. It is well laid 
out, has a good harbour, and promises to become a 
place of great importance. It contains, at present, 
about five or six thousand inhabitants, and may 
boast of several excellent institutions. 

Among the public buildings which ornament the 
town, the most conspicuous, are the new houses of 
parliament, the bank, the court-house, and the 
college. There are English and Scotch churches, 
and Dissenting chapels. The society, from' the cir- 
cumstance of Toronto being the residence of the 
officers of both the civil and the military depart- 
ments of the government, is perhaps superior to 
that of any town of the same amount of population 
in Britain. 

The Gore district, is much inferior in extent to 
the three last-mentioned, but has a fine front upon 
Lake Ontario. The soil is almost universally good, 
which is indicated by the huge trees which it every 
where throws up. Its principal town is Guelpb. 
It is situated upon the river Speed, which is one 


of the branches of the Ouse, which river falls into 
Lake Erie, on the coast of the Niagara district. 

The Niagara district lies directly south of Gore. 
It has an extensive front on Lake Erie on the south, 
and also on Lake Ontario on the north. It is separated 
from the United States, on the east, by the Niagara 
gat, upon which is situated the great cataract which 
has baffled the ingenuity and descriptive powers of 
80 many skilful writers to convey a distinct idea. 

The lands throughout this district are well 
watered, and are, with few exceptions, extremely 

In addition to the advantages in which nature has 
been so bountiful, art has also contributed to render 
Niagara a most desirable district for settlement. 
Here, the Welland Canal connects the upper with 
the lower lake, and the upper country with' the 
lower country, by opening the most remote settle- 
ments in the west, to the St. Lawrence and the 
ocean itself. 

The chief towns in this district are Niagara and 
Queenstown : the former is situated at the point at 
which the gut of rapids, froin which it takes its 
name, &lls into Lake Ontario. It was defended, 
daring the war, by Fort George, a mere dyke, now 
nearly crumbled away. Queenstown is situated 
about seven miles above Niagara, and about the 
same distance from the falls. 

Upon the heights of Queenstown, a splendid 
column has been erected by the Upper Canadians, 
to the memory of General Brpck^ wbo feU in action 


near the spot. The Amerieans had crossed the 
Niagara Gut^ but they were defeated, and a great 
part of them driven over the precipices, into the 
g^lf of whirlpools bekw. 

The London district is superior in dimensions to 
the two last-mentbned. Its northern shore, upon 
Lake Huron, is as extensive as that of the Home 
distriet, and embraces a finer coimtry and climate. 
It has also an extensive coast on Lake Erie. Its 
principal settlenwmts are at London and Goderich, 
towi»: which are laid out in anticipaticm of a great 
and rapid increase of population. 

London is situated upon the Thames, about (dHy 
miles from Lake St. Cbdr, into which that river 
flows ; but it is nearer to Fort Talbot upon leke 
Erie. Goderich i» situated at the mouth of the 
Biver Maitland, which falls into Lake Huron. It 
has a convenient port, capable of admitting vessels 
oi 200 tons burthen. It was founded by liie Caoada 
Company, and is the capital of the extensive traat 
of conntry which that company possess on Lad^e 
Hiirosi. They have cut roedis in several directions 
towards the most populous parts of the province^ 
and promoted the establishment of churches, schools, 
stores, mills, and whatever else is deemed useful in 
laying open a new tract; and, at the same time, 
encouraged the settlement of mechanics, in propor- 
tion to the sale of their wild lands to agriculturists. 

By this mean8> Ooderich is rapidly increasing in 
population and commerce, and, as the climaiie of this 
tract is milder, on account of the great unfroaen 


waters in its northern vicinity, than that of the 
eoasts of Ontark) and Erie, and the scenery more 
picturesque, the shores of Lake Huron will, pro- 
bably, he for some time, the resting-place of the 
majority of emigrants who enter the upper province. 
Within this extensive tract is found some of the best 
kmd in Canada, and, proportionably, but very little 
that is unfit for cultivation. 

The western district is a department of inferior 
dimensions, but is superior to any in the extent of 
its water-front, having Lake St. CSiair almost within 
its bounds. It forms the outwork of the province to 
the west, on which side it is separated from the 
United States by the above-mentioned lake, and the 
rivers or guts of St. Clair and Detroit. On the 
north, the St. Clair brings down the waters from 
the Huron, while the Detroit, on the south, empties 
the overflow of Lake St. Clair into Lake £rie, on 
which this district has, also, nearly 100 miles of 

Amherstburg, the most important town of tliis 
district, is situated upon the River Detroit. The 
country about the settlement is extremely diversified 
and picturesque. The inhabitants of the town are, 
for the most part, composed of the better sort of the 
French Canadians ; the eRte of that polite race of 
American colonists. 

The climate of the upper country is milder than 
that of the lower, and the season of winter is of 
shorter duration . There is about three degrees and 
a half difierence of latitude between Quebec and 

140 THB emigrant's INTBODUCTION. 

Toronto, and a difference of nearly two months in 
the length of the winter, in favor of the capital of 
the upper province. 

The settlements on Lake Erie are from a degree 
to a degree and a }ialf still south of Toronto, and 
below the parallel of a great part of the state of 
New York. Here, the vine thrives, and the more 
delicate fruits, the cultivation of which has scarcely 
been attempted in Lower Canada, ornament the 
markets and gratify the tasteof the settlers. Peaches 
and nectarines attain great perfection, without 
the walled gardens, and careful culture of the 
English horticulturists. The eastern districts of 
^is province, on the other hand, are inferior to the 
St. Francis territory in Lower Canada, and to the 
greater portion of the department of Montreal. 

The sudden transition from winter to summer, as 
has been before mentioned, is common to all parts 
of America. Here, the weather is often oppres- 
sively warm in April, even before the snow has dis^ 
appeared in the woods, or from places which are 
sheltered from the sun's rays. In July and August, 
the thermometer frequently rises to ninety-six Fa- 
renheity and sometimes stands, for several conse- 
cutive days, above 100 ; although the storms, which 
burst over the St. Lawrence in the mountainous 
districts about Quebec, do not rage with the same 
violence, nor are ever attended with the same awful 
consequences in this part of the country. The 
autumn is invariably the most delightful of the 
]3e{^ons ; the sky is clear, and the air dry ; and it is 


seldom too cold for the occupations of husbandry, 
before the beginning of January, while the shortest 
days are considerably longer than in the most south- 
em parts of England.* 
An intermittent fever, or ague, is very prevalent 
I through several districts, and is usually called the 
lake fever ; but it might perhaps, be more appro- 
priately designated the swamp-fever, being ob- 
served to be more common and violent in its effects 
wherever swamps much abound. If this hypothesis 
be well-founded, a little time may destroy the prin- 
ciple which generates this prevailing endemic : in 
the mean time, it should cause no alarm to the 
settler, as its character is not virulent, and in its 
worse effects, it may be considered rather as incon- 
Yenient than dangerous. 

The knowledge of agriculture, and the modes of 
hasbandry throughout this province, are in a rapidly 
improving condition, the colonists having assimi- 
lated their practice, as near as the climate and soil 
will permit, to that of the British farmer. 

Concerning the fertility of the soil, it may be re- 
marked, that a country exhibiting so far a landscape 
and such abundance and variety of forest vegetation, 
must necessarily possess a productive soil. The 
whole face of the country, in a state of nature, with 
few exceptions, presents a rich and dense forest; and 

* There is a difference between the length of the day at the 
winter solstiee, at London and at Toronto, of about one hour and a 
quarter in &v«r of Toronto. 

142 THB shiobakt's intboi>uction. 

where diis obstacle to cultivation has been removed, 
the soil is not found inferior in fecundity to that of 
any district within the temperate climates of Ame- 
rica ; and it in general yields a larger increase than 
the richest arable lands in England. There is, how- 
ever, a considerable quantity of swamp, to drain 
which, will no doubt be a primary object, as soon as 
the population of the country, and the capital of the 
colonists, render the rich meadow soils which it con- 
ceals, of more yalue to the agriculturist, and its 
effects upon the health of the settlers is more ap- 

The constitution of the government of the upper 
province, is modelled after the same great original 
as that of the sister colony, but the executive officer 
is only entitled Lieutenant-governor. The courts 
of law, and the judicial proceedings, differ from those 
of Lower Canada, only when real property is con- 
cerned, or when any of those matters are litigated, 
which come under the influence of the Roman Code 
or Civil Law, which obtains in that province. Here 
the English law prevails, judiciously modified by 
the provincial legislature, which has wisely aimed 
at the introduction of a simplicity more compatible 
with the state of society in a new country. 

The population of Upper Canada, at pr^ent, 
amounts to about 300,000 souls ; but it increases at 
the rate of about double in every seven oreight years. 

The annual revenue of this province is about 
£160,000. Its principal and most increasing source 
is through imposts, as noticed in the more general 


observations in a preceding chapter ; but, instead of 
these being levied on the frontiers, they are gathered 
at Quebec and Montreal, ifrom duties imposed by 
the kgidatnre of Lower Canada, and afterwards ap- 
portioned by negociation, according to vague calcu- 
tations, o£ the relative consumpticxn of the inhabi- 
tants of each of these provinces. This arragement 
has already been attended with differences between 
the local legislatures, and is not free from the lia- 
bility of their frequent occurrence. 

There are oliher sources of revenue, such as the 
sale of crown lands .; licences granted to inn-keep- 
ers, pedlars, and others. But the greater part of 
the money derived through these sources, is at the 
disposal of the provincial executive government. 
It is applied to useful improvements within the 
province, and to the payment of the salaries of such 
of the public officers and the clergy, as are not pro- 
vided for by the government at home. 

The conmierce of this colony consists chiefiy of 
the import of British manufisu^tures, and West India 
produce, and the export of com, potash, and pearl- 
ash to Great Britain, and spme flour to the West 

These valuable productions of the soil, pass from 
the most remote districts over lake Erie, through 
the Welland canal, which unites, as before said, the 
navigable waters of Erie with those of Ontario. 
Thence they are transported to Prescott, a STtiall 
commercial town, at the end of the Ontario steam- 
navigation below Kingston ; thence to Montreal, 

144 THB bmigrakt's introduction. 

commonly by batteaux, under the conduct of French 
Canadians, who fearlessly navigate the terrific ajid 
foaming rapids of the great river St. Lawrence ; bat 
sometimes by flat^bottomed craft, adapted for the 
perilous passage of the rapids, but which being unfit 
to return, are broken up, as soon as their cargoes 
are delivered. 

The trade in potash and pearlash, has a particular, 
as well as a general beneficial effect upon the in- 
terests of the settler in the woods : and the very 
obstruction to cultivation, is, especially where the 
beech-tree much abounds, sometimes converted to 
purposes of immediate and direct gain. As some 
reader may contemplate settling where this source 
of profit is unknown, it may not be amiss to mention 
the process by which these valuable articles are ob- 
tained in this colony. 

When the trees are felled, collected, and burnt, 
which is but the usual course of preparing the land 
for tillage, the ashes are collected, mixed with lime, 
and put into vats, through which water is filtered. 
The lie, thus obtained, is then put into large iron 
pots, and boiled till it changes from a brown to a 
claret colour; and, being cooled, the process is 
finished. This produces what is called potash. The 
manufacture of pearlash is upon the same principle, 
but not so simple. For what greater nicety or addi- 
tional expence it requires, recourse must be had to 
superior sources of information. 

The Upper Canadians have an effective militia, 
and there is generally a regiment of the king's 

THE emigrant's inthoduction. 146 

troops distributed among the smaller forts, their 
head-quarters at Toronto. There is no naval estab- 
lishment in the province in time of peace. 

If we except the settlers which have been men- 
tioned, at the head of lake Erie, there are very few 
French Canadians to be met with in the upper coun- 
try. The institutions of religion are, therefore, for 
the most part Protestant of the several denomina- 
tions known in this country. Upper Canada is within 
the diocese of the bishop of Quebec, but two arch- 
deacons reside within the province. The kirk is 
under the government of a presbytery as in Scotland, 
from which country the clergy are sent out, as con- 
gregations are formed to receive them. 

The most useful voluntary institutions consist of 
seminaries of education, at the head of which is 
King's College ; and of societies for the encourage- 
ment of agriculture ; with associations for the diffu- 
sion of other branches of useful knowledge. 

From the very birth of the political existence of 
this colony, education has been a capital considera- 
tion among the settlers. District sdiools were es- 
tablished by the legislature, with endowments of 
£100 a year, and smaller schools, with appropriate 
provision. But the province is indebted to a late 
governor for the establishment of a college of a su- 
perior class, the masters of which are graduates of 
the English universities ; and thus the means of edu- 
cation in Canada is now equal to that of the great 
public schools at home. The wisdom moreover, as 
it may be justly termed, of the colonists, has placed 

146 THE emigrant's introduction. 

at the head of the most important branches of learn- 
ing, the graduates of Cambridge in preference to 
those of Oxford. By this they hare shown, their less 
esteem for orthodoxy or paradoxy, than for the 
progress of those studies which throw open the 
doors of that temple of science, which is fiist rear- 
ing its head above the impediments of prejudice, 
and is doomed to be the bond of security for the 
progress of morals, and for the future prosperity 
of the province. 

General literature has by no means been neglect- 
ed in Upper Canada. There is no want of well- 
conducted periodicals, or newspapers ; and the in- 
crease of their circulation is in proportion to the 
rapidity with which the forest disappears, and culti- 
vation proceeds. 

THE bhigbakt's imtboduction. 147 


Origin and Domestic Manners of the Settlers.— Their Amusements. 
Reception of the New Settler. — Canadian Matrons. — Superior 
Intelligence of the Colonists.— Its Causes.-- Bapid Increase of 

Thb inhabitants of Upper Canada are composed of 
English, Scotch, and Irish, either lately located, or 
the descendants of the earlier emigrants, with a few 
of Dutch extraction, and some American loyalists. 
In the towns, their manners and domestic habits do 
not much differ, especially among the wealthier 
classes, from the manners of their fellow-subjects at 
home ; unless it be, in haying in a greater degree 
retained or recovered that gaiety and liveliness of 
disposition, which the aged tell us distinguished the 
" good old times" of their youth. Wonderful suc- 
cess has indeed attended their efforts to shake off 
that gloominess and reserve, which foreigners ob- 
serve in their intercourse with the English, and 
politely attribute to the humidity of our climate ; 
but which, perhaps, might with greater truth be im- 
puted to our prevailing pursuits. But whatever may 
be most justly blamed, it is certain, that the un- 
avoidable evil of a cloudy sky, which is taxed with 
our errors, is not a characteristic of the American 
climate ; nor do the embarrassments and perplexity 
into which John Bull is so fond of plunging, prevail 

H 2 

148 THE emigrant's xmtboductiok. 

with our countrymen in America. The atmospheric 
influence is not such as to engender morose habits 
by necessity, nor have the engagements of care sus- 
pended good-humour among the colonists. 

The Canadian colonist does not want enterprise ; 
on the contrary, he is more apt to possess entltu- 
siasm, than to be slothful and sluggish. The field of 
hope which he cultivates is sown in security and 
confidence ; and, constant in expectation, he steadily 
awaits the harvest which should reward his generous 

The distinctions in society are here as evident as 
in England ; but necessity, or the genius which pre- 
sides over the foundation and progress of States, 
like a painter most perfect in his art, for the pre- 
servation of that friendly intercourse and kindness 
which alone can convert the yet faintly sketched 
outline of a nation, into a flourishing and great 
people, has blended the shades with a finer touch, 
and more delicate hand ; and, above all, established 
in this infant state, a tolerance and charity in re- 
ligious opinions and practice, and even a modera- 
tion in politics, rarely to be met with in any country 
in the old or new world.* 

The most remarkable feature, in the character of 

* Those to whom the condition of the Ganadas, and the predomi- 
nant feelings and true sentiments of our trans-atlantic countrymen, 
are only known through the misty medium of occasional jMirty ex- 
traTagancies on either side the water, can acquire but about the 
tame degree of knowledge of the true state of things in those 

THB emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 149 

the colonists, is their anxious solicitude about the 
progress of improvement. This feeling is universal, 
and pervades every thing. " How does your settle- 
ment get on V* or words to the same effect, is the 
never^failing first interrogative, when two indivi- 
duals from different locations encounter in the towns 
or upon the roads ; and thus, the conversation is at 
once turned into the most useful channels, and often, 
each carries home new suggestions arising from the 
details of the other. When a farmer finishes his 
day's labour, he commonly pays a visit to one of his 
neighbours, to inspect the work in hand, compare 
notes, and suggest improvements. Whenever any 
occasion for meeting arises, the settlers reckon their 
numbers and strength, and speculate upon the value 
of the last ingress from the old country. They con- 
sider what new undertaking the welcome accession 
will warrant their proposing, such as the establish- 
ment of a school, or some useful association, perhaps 
erecting a church, or forming an agricultural society ; 
and it is the interest which is universally taken in 
these and other efforts towards bringing the institu- 
tions of a newly-formed society into active operation 
in the one, and the apathy and indifference with 
which every thing new is regarded in the other, 
that constitutes the great characteristic difference 
between the Upper and Lower Canadians, or, to 

countries, as that which enlightens the subjects of the Autocrats in 
the east, concerning our domestic affairs, when, by anticipation, they 
lament or rejoice OTer revolutionised and fallen England. 

150 THE emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 

speak more generally, the British and French 
colonists throughout the provinces. 

It may be supposed, that among a people so 
actively engaged in a variety of occupations which 
concern their first interests, mere leisure amuse* 
ments would not be found very numerous. There 
are few which they engage in during the months of 
summer ; but when the winter sets in, and out-door 
employments are confined to clearing the land ot 
its forest-trees, providing fencing, repairing or build- 
ing houses, and out-houses, and to such other occu- 
pations as are least subjected to the necessity of being 
completed during a particular season, the settlers 
relax from their seeming disregard for pleasure un- 
connected with graver interests, and severally, as 
the predominance of English, Scotch, or Irish may 
chance to fall, with their national pastimes beguile 
the tedious winter hours. Thus, they renew and 
perpetuate the memory of their native country, or 
that of their fathers, ''in times long past but still 
with Joy remembered.*' And, by such means is their 
union cemented, and their national pride preserved 
and made condusive to the formation of the character 
of a bold and ehterprising people. 

But the most general and most agreeable winter 
amusement, throughout the provinces, is not of 
British origin. From the time the snow falls until 
it disappears, driving carioles, or sledges if that 
term should be better understood, is a favorite 
pastime. The settlers travel, also, in these vehicles 
with incredible celerity ; and when the snow is well 

THB emigrant's intropvction. 151 

beaten, and the road^ smooth, so light and easy is 
the draught, that seventy of eighty miles is not con- 
sidered too much to drive a horse of ordinary 
strength, the same day.** 

There is one deservedly admired trait in the cha- 
racter of the settlers, the mention of which, should 
by no means be omitted. It concerns their reception 
of the stranger. They are ever ready to afford him 
accommodation, and to render any assistance in their 
power, to enable him to take up his abode among 
them. But this kindness is remarkably exhibited 
on the first day of his proper location. At whatever 
period he finds himself in a condition to begin on 
his own account, be it a month, or be it at the end 
of one or more years after his joining the settle- 
ment, the inhabitants of the vicinity^ having pre- 
viously arranged every thing for the economy of 
time, assemble by appointment, and put him up a 
house, and render it habitable ; and this is performed 
in the space of a single day. 

The method of effecting it is as follows. Those of 
the least mechanical genius or knowledge assume 
the rougher work, while the more ingenious ac- 
commodate themselves to the labour which may 
severally best suit their capability. The axemen 
begin, by cutting down the trees and clearing away 
the rubbish upon the space of about a square acre, 

*Two carioles, with two horses in each, were driven, by some 
officers quartered in New Bnmswick, from Fredericston to St. John's, 
a distance of ninety miles, in six hours. 

152 THE emigrant's IKTRODUCTION, 

this not Imving been already done by the new 

They then prepare logs of equal lengths. These 
they notch at the ends, fit to each other, and pile 
horizontally for the walls, leaving a space at one end 
for a fire-place and chimney : a door-way and space 
for a window is sawn out, when the walls are com- 
plete. The joiners then assist the axe-men, in con- 
structing the roof, laying the floors, and placing the 
window, door, and bed-places, already prepared ; 
while the adepts in masonry erect the fire-place of 
large ready-dressed stones, and the chimney of clay 
mixed with straw. The walls are then stored, or 
" the seams," in sea-phrase " calked" with dry 
moss. The house being finished, the ceremony of 
installation completes the day's "frolic," as it is sig- 
nificantly termed in some of the settlements. This 
is in keeping with the performance of the day. A 
small spruce bough is placed upon the chimney- top, 
and a gun is fired. At this signal, the settler enters 
with his family into his new habitation, and from 
this time he is an elector, and independent mem- 
ber of the community of his own choice. 

The Canadian matrons are not wanting in the 
most estimable feminine virtues ; nor are they in- 
ferior, in delicacy or intelligence, to any women in 
the world. They are distinguished, in a particular 
manner, from the ladies of some of the republican 
states, by the good taste displayed in their studies, 
their subjects of conversation, and their amuse- 
ments, and by their general dislike to political dis- 
putation. Discussions upon local polities are, in- 


deed, among the ladies within the union, often con- 
ducted with too much warmth. They sometimes 
rob the greatest beauty of her attractions, and are 
dangerous alike to the permenancy of that dignity 
of character, and that delicate influence, that are the 
pillars upon which the moral edifice of our best 
institutions rests. 

A lady who was conversing on a subject nearly 
allied to that of the last paragraph, at the instant it 
was writing, unconscious of the application, made 
this apposite remark : that the highest privilege, as 
she conceived, that the women of the world enjoyed, 
was their exemption from sharing in the labours of 
legislation. Would it were possible, was the reply, 
that the romance of life could every where be puri- 
fied from that base mixture of political alloy, which 
80 often infuses its baneful properties into the pri- 
vacies of domestic life ! 

Injustice to the ladies of the Union, it must how- 
ever be observed, that the above remark respect- 
ing them is not generally applicable, and deserves 
no more weight in the just estimate of the repub- 
lican female character, than should be allowed to 
descriptions of shakers, and other sects of enthusi- 
asts, in a picture of the sentiments and religious 
feeling ofa whole people. These productions of super- 
stition or a heated imagination, though they should 
be the rarest in the world, do not greatly exceed in ab- 
surdity the unknown-tongue fanaticism of such recent 
memory in our metropolis ; or the ravings of even some 
of our more permanent fanatics : and what should we 

H 5 


think of an American writer, who Eihould so dwell 
upon his descriptions of these our own ^thusiasts, 
as to cast the very stam^ of the English national cha- 
racter with the impressions of loose liability to the 
predominance of such shocking indecencies ? 

The superior degree of liberal information which 
is possessed by the agriculturists of the various 
classes, as well as by the mechanics and the inferior 
orders of tradesmen, is a strongly-marked feature 
in the character of the colonists ; but its cause is 
doubtless applicable to all conditions of society where 
the settlement of the land is of recent date, while 
the social institutions are derived from the practical 
wisdom of ages of experience. Those whose means 
of information have been limited to the con- 
fined sphere of their own proper calling at home, 
here necessarily associate, transact business, or 
move frequently, with persons of higher acquire- 
ments and more general knowledge. But there is 
another cause, which greatly tends to the general 
enlargement of the understanding ; and this is, the 
practice of attending in courts of law, wherever this 
is possible. In the capital towns, the senate-bouse 
is also a place of great resort. Here the colonist 
sees the forms of the constitutional institutions, and 
has the opportunity of listening to the most interest- 
ing and instructive discussions that can engage the 
attention of a citizen and subject. There is no means 
of acquiring knowledge so efficient as this, especially 
in youth. An abstract of the causes and effects of 
all the occurrences of civil life is here presented. 


as at a glance ; and concealed truths are unveiled 
to the apprehension of the intelligent colonist, 
which remain dark and inexplicable mysteries to the 
•&rmer or mechanic in England. 

But let it not be thought, from these remarks, 
that mor^ time is occupied in the pursuit of liberal 
knowledge than should be spared from occupations 
apparently more profitable. No people are more 
provident, or more jealous of their time, than the 
Canadians; but there is no species of knowledge 
that may not be put to profitable uses by every intel- 
ligent member of society in a new country. 

A traveller in Canada, especially from any of the 
larger towns in Britain, is very apt, upon his first 
aoquaintfflice with the people of the country, to 
think them somewhat rude in their manners to 
strangers, especially if he should have come among 
them without any previous knowledge of their cha- 
racter; but this impression he will soon discover 
to be erroneous. 

" IVythee 
'< Think hs no churls; nor measure our good minds^ 
" By the rude place we dwell in.*' 

If, at an hotel or elsewhere, he should address a 
Canadian farmer in the same tone of voice, or in the 
same language which he has perhaps been accus- 
tomed to use in speaking to a dependent upon himself, 
or upon any one else in England, he will probably re- 
ceive such a reply as will for a moment puzzle him. 
He will weigh the matter and manner of it, and be 

156 THE emigrant's XMTRODVOTIOK. 

at a loss to decide, whether it proceeded from churl* 
ishness or boorish ignorance : and yet it will not 
hare originated in either. He must engage a little 
deeper in discourse : he must talk of the laws, the 
constitution, the theory as well as practice of agri- 
culture; or, the national debt and poor-laws of 
England, if he will ; and, in a short time, he will 
discover, that it was a certain degree of justifiable 
contempt, that dictated the manner as well as the 
matter of the first reply which he received ; and he 
will be surprised to find, that beneath, perhaps, a 
rough exterior, inhabits a spirit as many degrees 
removed from that of the boor, with whom he may 
have conceived himself inopportunely associated, as 
from that of the man of the town, whose fastidious- 
ness and finical nicity will here be more pitied 
than blamed. 

But the inexperienced traveller will meet many, 
a greater surprise than this. A lady, for instance, 
perhaps a belle, at a government ball at Toronto, is 
not unlikely to ask him whether he drove his cart 
into town full of marketable produce in the morn- 
ing ; and, before he has time to recover himself, she 
may add some practical questions concerning the 
state of the crops, the wheat, barley, and oats, and 
perchance, even the cabbages and cauliflowers. To 
which questions he will probably reply : " Upon my 
honor, madam, I have neither farm nor cart, nor 
know I any thing about the culture or the state of 
the cabbages or cauliflowers ;" his face, at the same 
time, betraying feelings of indignation at being 


mistaken for a peasant. But, his surprise will be 
yet greater when he finds, that, instead of having 
been thought a rustic, the lady mistook him for 
some noble captain in the royal navy, or for some 
colonel or major of one of His Majesty's regiments 
of horse or foot; so little incompatibility is there 
between the avocations and the employments of a 
tenant of the forest, and the independence and re* 
fined amusements of a gentleman. But the reader 
will find the solution of this mystery less difficult, 
sbould he proceed with the perusal of this account 
of his fellow-subjects in America. 

Very far from the towns, especially where the 
inhabitants are thinly scattered over an extensive 
tract of country, which is always unfavorable to 
civilization, the settlers are not so well-informed, 
and their manners are less refined, than in the 
populous districts ; but these deficiences are atoned 
for, by their universal civility and urbanity. What 
they want in refinement, is made up for by their 
extreme candour and hospitality ; and, what they 
want in knowledge, they at least appear to have 
but little occasion for. '^ Those that are good 
manners," says the shepherd in the forest of Arden, 
to the clown of the palace, scandalized at the cus- 
toms of the wood, " Those that are good manners 
at the court, are as ridiculous in the country, as the 
behaviour of the country is most mockable at the 

And those who might not distinguish the difference 
between forest simplicity, with the rough accom- 

158 THE bmioraht's introduction. 

paniments to the entertainments of a Canadian 
back-woodsman, and the manners of some of those 
who cultivate the soil at home, will hardly appre^ 
ciate the character of the colonists : and, whoever 
cannot leave behind him the unnecessary portion of 
the ceremonials of the city, had better not expose 
himself to the ridicule which the importation of any 
thing like court-foppery would be sure to excite. 

The increase of population, and the general in- 
ternal improvement in Upper Canada, within the 
last few years, have perhaps exceeded any thing of 
the kind ever before experienced in any part of the 
world. These extraordinary advances, have neither 
been, singly, the effects of natural increase, or ordi- 
nary immigration, but may in a great degree be attri- 
buted to the policy of government, in advisedly, 
and very judiciously, disposing of about two millions 
of acres of waste and wilderness lands, to certain 
capitalists, who, under the name of the ^' Canada 
Company," were incorporated by act of parliament 
in 1826, and have ever since been actively engaged 
in the plantation of their territories. The greater 
part, and most choice portions of these lands, are 
situated within the Gore and London districts, 
where have been founded the towns and settlements 
of Guelph and Goderich, mentioned in the topogra- 
phical sketch of that section of the country. 



Illustrations of Colonial Character. 

Some of the British settlers in Canada are as 
communicative as they are cheerful. A contented 
and affluent couple, located upon a spot of rising 
ground, on the bank of a stream which empties 
itself into one of the inferior rivers of the upper 
country, relate the brief history of their adventures, 
and their success. 

Twenty-four years ago, they were i^omantic lovers 
in Scotland, guilty of those imprudences which are 
not uncommon among kindred spirits, doomed by 
fortune, or cruelty, to forego their hopes of being 
united with the consent of those on whom their 
future happiness may depend. Fate seemed to 
have condemned them, 

" Conyersing, looking, loving, to abstain 
From love's due rights, nuptial embraces sweet, 
And with desire to languish withont hope." 

But the voice of nature was stronger than that of 
prudence : they obeyed its dictates, and the foreseen 
consequences followed. They were abandoned by 
all but the young wife's mother, by whose humanity 
they were rescued from starvation. But even this 

160 THE bmiobaht's introduction. 

relief was about to be withdrawn by the savage 
parent of the other sex, and the lowest depths of 
despair was their bitter portion. So poignant was 
their grief, that she who is now the happy mother of 
twelve fine children, conceived that their only 
remedy for the sufferings which threatened them, 
was separation, and the employment of their unac- 
customed bands in the meanest offices. With true 
Malthusian severity she addressed her husband, in 
the spirit, if not the words, addressed by the mother 
of mankind, in our great poem, to her partner in 
shame, when overwhelmed by despair, at the 
prospect of misery entailed upon their posterity 
by her disobedience — 

" In thy power it lies— 

To prevent a race unblessed— 

Childless fhon art. Childless remain." 

But her husband had better hopes. 

" There is no time so miserable, but 
A man may be true." 

They sought some safer resolution, and the hope 
of brighter days beamed upon them. They deter- 
mined upon emigration, and embarked for Quebec ; 
and a finer family, and better instructed, or more 
happy, does not now inhabit the region of Canada. 
But the particulars of their history should be told 
in the Settlers own words. 

*^ On the first day of April," said the worthy man. 

THE bmiqbakt's intbodvotion. 161 

commencing his story, ** we set sail from Leith, onr 
hearts bursting with mixed feelings of hope and 
regret. We encountered many perils; but, our 
* 8ea sorrows' were of short duration. On the fifth 
of May we landed at Quebec, and after a tedious pas* 
sage of almost equal length with that from England 
to America, for steam-boats were then unknown, we 
arrived at Montreal. Here we calculated our 
necessary expences, and found that we had not 
wherewith to carry us to Kingston. We therefore 
determined upon remaining here for the present, and 
took a mean lodging at the foot of the mountain in 
the rear of the town, resolved to employ our time as 
advantageously as we were able, and patiently endure 
our trials, until we had earned the means of retreat- 
ing to the most sequestered spot in Canada, our ori- 
ginal intention. British emigrants were at that time 
very rarely to be met with, and courted in proportion 
to their appearance and supposed usefulness. I had 
been bred to no business, but had a sound theo^ 
retical, and slight practical knowledge of horti- 
cnlture as well as agriculture, which availed us 
beyond our expectations, so that we were able to 
live with something like comfort. We remained 
here until tlie spring of the following year, when we 
set out, much improved in circumstances and spirits, 
upon the tedious journey to Kingston. There I left 
my wife, and proceeded to explore the country, in 
order to fix upon the site of our future habitation, 
and prepare for the location of my family. Upon 
this expedition I was accompanied by a young man 


who now occupies the farm which immediately 
fronts us upon the opposite bank of the stream. 
We spent several days, examining the advantages 
of the lands along the banks of this very river, and 
were encamped, for some time, within a quarter of a 
mile of the piece of ground we now cultivate. We 
chiefly subsisted upon game and fish, which afforded 
US) at the same time, much sport, and had consider- 
able influence upon our determination. The hand 
of man had not then laid the axe to the tree within 
eighty miles of this spot. 

^ ' Having determined upon the place of our location, 
in thirty or forty days time we had exchanged our 
wigwam for a log-hut, and had several acres cleared 
and fit for the first rude essays in cultivation* We 
then returned to Kingston, where my friend wisely 
married an amiable young person who had been 
some time in our family : after a day or two, which 
was necessary to provide for our final retreat, we 
set out together by canoe, to take possession of the 
home of our choice, where, safely arrived, after 
weighing our sorrows with our comforts, we volun- 
tarily foreswore i^U other human society but that 
with which providence might bless us by family in- 
crease, and we cheerfully consigned ourselves to 
perpetual seclusion in the depth of the forest. Had 
we, indeed, at that time foreseen the early progress 
of Canadian cultivation, we should have dreaded, 
rather than have anticipated with pleasure, the 
prospect of those signs of industry and rural happi- 
ness which now surround us. For our success, I 


cannot omit to mention, we are greatly indebted to 
the ladies of our party ; especially to her w.ho sleeps 
beneath my own roof. 

" During the first two years of our retreat, we 
occupied almost as much time in hunting up and 
shooting the deer, as in improving our estates ; for 
we had not acquired that' relish for the rural pur- 
suits, which is the greatest stimulant to industry, 
and which,, wh^ known, is in itself a sufBcient 
reward for the toils of the most laborious occupa- 
tions. We have long, however, ceased to use the 
gun and the rod, as assistants in the production of 
necessaries, although we still employ them in the 
pursuit of pleasure, and for the sake of a little oc- 
casional variety, and very acceptable addition to 
our larder. 

^* Our first crop consisted but of a moderate sup- 
ply of potatoes, and a few bushels of wheat, which 
we ground in a quern we had provided for that pur- 
pose. As soon as the season of field labour was 
over, we erected a second log-hut for our com- 
panions in exile, who henceforth commenced opera- 
tions upon their own land; although, for conve- 
nience, as well as from inclination, we, the men of 
the party, usually shared the labours of the wood or 
the field together, working each, alternate days, for 
the advantage of the other. 

" The second year we reaped from my ovm 
ground, in spite of our disposition to indulge in the 
sports of the forest, sixty bushels of wheat, twenty 
of barley, forty of oats, and a full twelve months 


supply of potatoes, besides a few turnips and a fair 
proportion of garden-stuff, and some things of less 
importance. This augmentation of our eitchange- 
able articles, enabled us to carry to the settlements 
the value of a cow, which it had become the more 
necessary we should not want, as my wife, before 
the gathering of harvest, had given birth to a son. 

" The follorv«'ing year, the result of our twelve 
months labour was so abundant, and our prospects so 
propitious, that we began to lay up some part of the 
proceeds of the farm for the payment of the first in- 
stalment of the purchase-money agreed upon for our 
land, which was due the fifth year. Besides this,, 
we were able to add a yoke of oxen to our stock/' 

The reader may not know, that the labour of the 
ox is more profitable than that of the horse, in the 
infancy of farming operations in America. It is 
turned to the best account, in drawing out the 
stumps, and levelling and preparing the land for 
the quicker step, and the more desirable, and then 
more available assistance, of the noble animal. 

" Our yearly increase," continued he, " was so 
great, that after gathering the harvest of the fifth 
year, we not only paid a considerable sum towards 
the liquidation of the debt of the original purchase- 
money, but we were enabled to increase our stock 
by extraordinary additions ; so that, it now consisted 
of two yoke of oxen, two horses, three cows, and 
five and twenty sheep. And we had all the neces* 
sary agricultural implements, though they were of 
the rude manufacture of the country. 

THs bhigbant's iktboductiok. 165 

" In our annual visits to the settlements, for the 
disposal of the surplus portion of our produetions, 
we had communicated with several emigrants lately 
arrived from Britain ; yet, for some time, we made 
no efforts to induce any to join us. But, as our 
children increased in number, and their in&nt 
minds began to develope themselves, the impor-' 
tance of society, and the necessity for education, 
became more apparent, and gradually overcame our 
selfish desire of perpetual seclusion." 

That romance in which the forest is clothed, and 
which infuses into the soul the true spirit of enter- 
prise, and drowns, in the sublime thoughts which it 
inspires, every narrow and ungenerous conception, 
had long since subdued the feelings which prompted 
their early resolutions. 

" And," continued the settler, " in the seventh 
year of our location, we saw, with pleasure, a third 
family prepare to set down beside us. The next 
year, twelve more settled in the vicinity, and a 
small log school-house was built, and a worthy pre- 
ceptor of middle age, who had lately arrived from 
England, and who had formerly filled an inferior 
station in a school-establishment in his own country, 
was engi^ed. Thus the work of education was 
coeval with the foundation of our settlement, and it 
has ever since kept pace with the growth of our 
population, and the progress of the several little 
institutions which have arisen among us." 

" From this time, I usually kept in my house a 
family of recently-arrived emigrants, who were 

166 THE bmigrakt's introduction. 

hired by the month, and successively changed as 
they became independent. I had, sometimes, from 
four to six yoang men with me at a time ; all of 
them in search of the means of a prudent matrimo- 
nial alliance; a necessary step, as you may well 
judge, for the assurance df success and happiness 
in this abundant country. 

** The ninth year of settlement, a church was pro- 
jected and subscribed for ; but, it must be confessed, 
that if we had but little difficulty m procuring a 
preceptor for our youth, the same &cilities did not 
attend our endeavours to accommodate our variety 
of complexions of faith to any general establishment 
of christian communion and worship. But the 
strong prejudice and want of charity, imported 
from the old country, where they have less influ- 
ence upon ordinary worldly affairs than in America, 
although sometimes revived by those, whose first 
duty ought to be to check, instead of encourage 
these unchristian feelings, are happily at this day 
almost entirely worn away. We have now three 
places of worship, and four congregated sects; 
churchmen, kirkmen, catholics, and methodists. 
The two former of these, use alternately, the same 
place of worship ; but the two latter, keep exclusive 
possession of their own chapels/' 

The condition of the family here described is not 
a solitary instance of prosperity, but, in effect^ the 
true state of the greater proportion of the Canadian 
British settlers ; and, for that reason, it has been 
selected, as essentially agreeable to the common ex- 


perience of that class of emigrant settlers. All the 
circumstances which led to the emigration of the 
parties are not, indeed, such as occur most fre« 
quently ; but that dread of poverty and dependence, 
which suggested and determined their resolution, is 
among the commonest motives that induce us to 
embrace this means of relief from the sufferings 
which will be at times unavoidable, wherever the 
demands to supply the wants of an increasing popu- 
lation, exceed the collective productions of the 
ground, as is at present the case, in several of the 
most fertile and most highly-cultivated countries of 
the old world. 

The present population of this settlement, just 
twenty years since the first tree was felled, exceeds 
five thousand souls. It may boast of a well con* 
ducted newspaper, and a very useful periodical. The 
latter is devoted to the most interesting, and most 
usefol inquiries concerning the best adapted methods 
of agriculture in every period of settlement, and date 
of clearance, of the land under cultivation, combined 
with the results of the experiments of agriculturists, 
on this, as well as on that side of the Atlantic. There 
is ako an agricultural society, through the means of 
which much practical benefit is derived. And a 
banking establishment is alone wanting, to complete 
the Ikt of the most desirable institutions, and give 
rise to the active spirit and persevering industry of 
the settlers. 

ThiQ feelings and experience of another successful 
emigrant, who had revisited his native country, after 

168 THE emigrant's INTRODtrOTtOK. 

settlement, will add to our stock of materials for the 
remarks which are reserved for the conolading 

A respectable tradesman, of industrious habits spd 
unassuming manners, who formerly kept a small 
establishment in a country town in England, had 
acquired sufficient capital, and had spirit enough, to 
remove, with his family and little property, to Can- 
ada. His knowledge of the world was very limited, 
but he possessed enterprise, and had a mind which 
thirsted for more liberal pursuits. He took up his 
residence in one of the towns, of which the rapid 
increase insures the success of all its earlier tenants. 
His gains so much exceeded his expectations, that 
a few years after his settlement, he was able to build 
a neat dwelling-house in the vicinity of the metro- 
polis of the colony. From this time, he was associated 
with those whose earlier acquirements had rendered 
them much his superiors, at least in those branches 
of knowledge which are the peculiar usurpation of 
men of leisure ; and he was for some time at a loss to 
judge by what means he might most creditably dis- 
charge the new duties which devolved upon him, as 
an independent member of the community to which 
he now belonged. One day, he would be chosen 
foreman of a grand jury ; the next, called upon to 
speak at a public meeting ; the following, made an 
arbitrator, and expected to assist in unravelling a 
knotty question of disputed rights. 
' Thus occupied, as will be the case with every man 
of natural shrewdness that can be founds this intd- 

tHB BBOQ rant's INTRO0UOT1ON. 169 

ligent settler became iiiq[uisitiye coneemiag those 
prmoiples by which the system of civil economy is 
supported, and was considered, before he had been 
eight years in the country, as a competent person to 
represent the town in the provincial assembly, and 
elected to fill that high and proud station in a. popu- 
lar government. Some years after this elevation of 
his fortunes, the m^nber of parliament felt an irre- 
sistible desire to revisit his native country and town, 
where he made his appearance about eighteen 
years after he had quitted it for America. But 
what he there experienced, as far as his words can 
be recalled, he must himself relate. The reader 
will, as he proceeds, see the connection of this detail 
with the proper subject of his inquiries." 

^<The accounts of my father's death," siUd he, 
*^ reached me a few months before my departure. 
My mother had long since paid the debt of nature. 
But although I was not young, and had no paternal 
roof to receive me, I was nevertheless full of antici- 
pations of the reception I should meet with from all 
my connections, and former associates. I found all 
my near relations in easy circumstances enough; 
and, notwithstanding my '^ high*blown" notions, 
passed a little time very agreeably. But I shortly 
b^an to discover, diat the descent from my colonial 
station was- attended with too much inconvenience 
to be patiently endured; moreover, sai attack or 
two of our country fever, for this spot at that time 
was less bealtfay than at present, had in all proba- 
bility a litde shaken my niarves, and rendered, me 



somewhat impMient and irritable. My style and 
manners, too, were not purely English, and there* 
fore looked upon as boorish and comtpted, eren by 
those whose inexperience I most pitied. Some among 
the more refined and better instrueted orders of so- 
biety with whom I assocnited, considered my expe- 
rience in the world and reputation for good sense 
entitled me to a certain degree of reqpect ; bttt not m 
few regarded me, as one already united with that 
class of politicians which are reported, whether truely 
or fidsely, to hold no opinions, and follow no princi- 
ples, but those which embrace the most absurd 
thearies for le^Uing all the existing distinotaons in 
society. Daring my stay in Engkmd, I neiUier re- 
newed any friendships, except with those near rela- 
tions with whom I had kept up a correspondence, 
nor contracted any intimacies, except with some of 
the rising branches of the &mily, notarrrred at that 
sceptical age which begins to doabt all things that 
are not agreeable to common experience. 

^^ I had never been in London ; and so many won- 
ders were related to me, respecting the magnificence 
and number of the works of art, the splendour of 
the equipages, and the peculiar mattHers of die citi* 
zens, diat I should have been as much disappointed 
as ashnmed, to hare returned to this country with- 
out <¥isitiog the metropolis of tlie radpire ; espeeialiy, 
as I had introductory letters from persons of great 
consideration in this province. AcocMMliiigly, I set 
off ibv the capital, with H^e spirits and anticipations 
of a.peasant boy upon his first journey to tihat great 

eitj, ami srrinred, iddumt aocid«iity at the Srimnrwidi 
Tvo N^ckff, Lad'-Iane '^ an iim of whieb tke name 
had been fioBodliar to me is mj cVMbacA* 

^^ My' fiust care^ after taj arriyal in town^ was to 
present mj letters of iatrodnetion ; for, having mm 
aeqnaisitenoe, I ivas deedroua of andling mfnift as 
early as possible,, of the asaistasiae o£ the good, and 
Hsefid friends I was about to acqviire^ that I might 
parade tbe dangerons streeto, and tisw the gveat 
objects of atuaxamentand pomp, without being 8iib>- 
jected to the perik whidL await the lOKwary stranger, 
whomu the vicious and wily sharpers whseh there 
abound, are said to discoyer, by a sort of mtaitive 
acuttttess of perception, quite ratural to their pn> 

*' The first letter which I delivered was addressed 
taasfterchantathiis countmg-'housci, ia^ the viccnity 
of the Royal Exchange, it was left open for ndy 
perusal, and it was couched in such flattering tems 
eonc^mkig die bearer, that I wished it had been a 
sealed comouinicatiDn, and felt some daffidenng in 
deHT^ringit. I wasafSraidk wouldprodnoesomaeh 
solieitade oa^ my account, and lay me undkr such 
oUigatious, that I should find it inconvenient Offhn^ 
possible to repay. Uow^rer, I set off for the mei«* 
chant's) praimng my own thooghtfiibiess as I waait 
along, for ha/ving ti^en a precatttioa, the neglect of 
wfakh would ha^re left me a stranger in Londto, 
and subjected me to sd many ineonveniencies and 
dangers. Antred at tibe eountingrhouseolmy friend ' 
diat was 90- soon to» be, I wag^infofmedAatJie was ' 

I 2 

172 THE XHlQBAlfT's 1NTR01>UCT10K* 

alone, within an inner apartment. 1 therefore sent 
in ihe letter, aad prepared myself for the summons. 
The bell rang, and the lad who had oarsied in the 
letter attended his principal, and returned to inform 
me, that the merchant, being v^y bu»y, sent me 
word, that it would be more cony enient to him to 
afford me an interview at any other time. I judged^ 
of course, that the gentleman must be in. cm ex- 
traordinary manner engi^ed, and, although a little 
disappointed, I felt no great surprise at this delay. 
. ^^ I called the. next morning, and my name being 
carried in, I was requested to wait a short time in 
the outer office ; where, for the first time in my life, 
1 witnessed the busy scene which a counting-house 
exhibits. The running in and out of the youths, to 
present or carry away bills of exchange, was in- 
cessant ; and, at times, the fire-side was surrounded 
by foreigners, who conversed in a variety of tongues, 
which were Greek alike to me. As no one appeared 
disposed to hold any intercourse with the stranger, 
I amused myself, by drawing in my imagination, the 
characters of those who came in, from the ample 
materials afforded by what I saw transacted, during 
my patient attendance. At about the end of two 
hours, I received an answer to a. polite message I 
had sent the merchant concerning the delay. It 
wad to beg, as he was very much occupied, that I 
would- be so good as to look in again the next time 
I should happen to pass that way. I did pass^ and 
call, very foolishly, again and again, but the gentle- 
man I neversaw. ' Never mind^'said I, ' the old fellow 

THE emigrant's intboduction. 173 

is, no doiibt, not worth knowing, and the Draper, to 
wb<Mn I have ako letters of introduction, witl be in 
towii to-morrow; and upon him, I dare say, I shall 
be able to depend, as a guide in this mightj metro- 
polis, which, after all, does not present half the 
perils we fancy in Yorkshire. 
. " The Draper arrived, and shaking me heartily by 
the I^nd, as I presented myself, invited me to meet 
a party at dinner that day week ; and very politely 
offered the services of his little boy to show me old 
Gog and Magog, in. Guildhall; but the fog was so 
dense, both in and out the hall, that the giants were 
no^ visible ; for thisact of kindness, however, I shall 
always feel greatly indebted to him. 

'^ I dined with the gentleman on the day appointed, 
and must acknowledge my obligations, in proportion 
40 the value that should be set upon turtle, and all 
other, luxuries of a rich citizen's board. I became 
however, sis may be easily imagined; very soon tired 
of the local political conversation of the bmi'vivansy 
who graced my new acquaintance's table, and re- 
tired, dissatisfied with the formal style of the enter- 
tainxnent at which I had been a casual. guest. After 
a hasty view of all that could be seen widiin lb fort- 
night, not forgetting an attendance. at the house of 
commons, as well as the lords, for. the parliament 
was sitting, I determined to make the best of my 
way back to Yorkshire, and to hasten my return to 
the bdoved woods of my adopted country. 

"During my lonely rambles about London, 
nothing more forcibly struck me, as wanting reform, 

174 TRB smafiAHT's ntTitoDucTioir. 

Aan tbe etmmoj of the shops irhich tbe ladies 

chiefly frec{iieirt I am sore 1 saw twenty jmnig 

men behiBd the covnters of a single shop, ^mpIojreA 

ia oocupatigiMi wliick would better become the <^faer 

sex ; andy as I heanl there weve haadredsof young 

women of the same class, flias deprived <»f the means 

of an honest livdUhoed, I could not help thinking, 

diat this state of dungs was the cause of more enU 

than were at the ^rst apparent. The king shoold 

raise a corps of these youths, not to heat his enemies^ 

but to cat down the forests, and eultiirate the 

waste lands of his trans^liaaticdominioas. But his 

majesty most fifsi provide eadi of them with a 

suitable spouse. We will take care, tiiat their ef- 

lemkmte habits do notsurviFe a jamnth in thiscountiy . 

^Setrng by die ipspers, a fewdi^ afier my petam 

to Ike covntry, Aat a sdect ball was to take pla^ 

at York, which was within a morning's nde, I set 

aS to join in the festivities «f the cTenisg, in that 

ftmoos ctty. I experienced eome little cUfficulty m 

gaining admission, but I knew die power of money 

<m these occasions ; and I did not only join hands, 

with noble heivessesand aeeomplished ladies, but 

had the inexpressible satis&etion, the next day, to 

learn, that I had actually been taken ior a well* 

known, though seldom seen, member of the oom^ 

' mens of England. I never heard how this mistake 

arose, but I always attribnted it to a discussion upon 

a question of privilege, which I held with a noble 

lord at the sapper«table after tiie ladies had retired. 


But be this as U ndajr^ I was so contented at finding 
this healing application for the wounds inflicted upon 
my pride, by the ooldness and indifference of my 
native townstnaUy that I staid a month longer than 
had been my original intention, in order that I might 
have the fall enjoyment of my triumph." 

The settler then proceeded to give a sketch of his 
parliamentary career as a colonist. — ** My attention/' 
he obserred, ** has been in a more particular manner 
directed to the sulgect of improving the present sys- 
tem of education, and to the best means of promot- 
ing the increase of religious charity. But all I have 
yet gained is the applause of an inconsiderable 
number ofn^y fellow-citizens without doors. Among 
them I think I have awaked a spirit of inquiry into 
the wisdom or necessity of making great clianges in 
our established modes of instruction ; although I 
know I was considered, by a learned member or two, 
a rustic boor, when I brought forward my proposi- 
tions ; for, in the midst of my oration I distinctly 
heard several sarcastic remarks. I was followed, 
too, by ike droll of the assembly ; who, by his huge 
engine of witticism opened the very sluices of mirth 
agunst the foundation of my system ; so that, my 
half-finished fabric was overthrown, and crumbled 
into dust before the myriad-horse-power of ridicule. 
With the merry success of this experiment, my con- 
fidence for the present gave way, and the debate was 
jclosed. I have, however, now so nicely arranged, in 
my mind, my long-projected scheme, that I trust I 
shall recover my confidence, and, at least, gain a 

176 fitE EMIGHAnVs IKTR0i>tJtfTl6*^ 

patient hearing Upon this subject, 5n the appro«dKlig 
sessions. . • 

" I wish I could say that I had*tw well-iiig6st€id 
my thoughts upon the much more difficult work of 
perfecting religious charity. It is thought, by «oine 
among us, that, as this positive virtue takes* higher 
seat upon the reform benches of public opinion in 
these colonies, than in the confederated nations to 
the south of us, we have therefore no cause of com- 
plaint ; but my yet undigested theory for pi-omoting 
the attainment of this great end, making no com- 
parisons, aims at the establishntent of tolerance upon 
principles adapted to insure the universality, as well 
as the perpetuity, of that great moral attribute'. 
Should I have the good fortune to accomplish this 
reformation in religious opinions, nothing, that I 
know of, will remain to obstruct the course of the 
most advised measures for the further improvemetit 
of our social institutions. I shall, however, confine 
my own future labours to my best endeavour to 
discover the sources of misunderstanding upon 
points connected with this last my favourite topic, 
and to my strongest efforts to promote education, 
and the several objects of the most useful of our 
established institutions. Beyond a fair degree of 
success in the attainment of these objects, my par- 
liamentary ambition does not aspire." 

Many other things were dilated upon by this 
amusing colonist ; but what is written is sufficient 
to show, how easily a revolution in thinking, as well 
as in manners is effected. One fiirtber remark, how» 


«¥€£» should not be omitted ; that it was observed, 
that, among the books in this colonial statesman's 
heterogeneoos library, Adam Smith and Arthur 
Young, were more dogs-eared than anj other; 
thoiugh these, a& it was evident, were not the only 
W4>rks perused. 

« * 

!'■ ; •■•. . ; J - . 

I & 

178 nu xmoBAar's nnrmoiioencar. 


I]liutrati<ms oontiaiied. 

The writer was nerer identified with the {Nuiieii- 
lar interests of the Canadas ; and a resident in either 
of the provinces finds himself, in a sister colony, a 
kind of foreigner, as regards matters of local con- 
cern, although the compatriot of the setdera in all, 
in reference to European ties, of either interest or 
feeling. On this account, he belieyes it will be 
easier to introduce what appears to him most nseftil 
to notice, concerning the opinions which nsnally 
prevail among the settlers, upon questions of general 
politics, by a recurrence to the openly expressed 
sentiments of a Canadian colonist, with those of 
several of his guests, upon a fisivorable occasion. 

One summer's day, after the cloth was removed 
from the dinner-table of this settler, who was an 
affluent agriculturist, it was suggested by one of the 
party, that, as the luminary of day had shot so £Eur 
into the west, that the plot of grass in front of the 
house was now shaded by a grove of firs, we should 
do wisely to adjourn to the benches and rustic ac- 
commodations of the lawn, where, added the speaker, 
free as the breeze, (the conversation had already 
turned upon politics,) we may discuss this perplexed 


sitlgect. There being no dissenti^atfi, we aoon found 
oartelres under ibe canopy of the skies \ while the 
laadsci^pe before us exhibited one of the noblest 
-views in all Canada. The debate was resumed. 

** There are two questions," said a British settler 
to one <tf his countrymen, more i^cently arrived, 
* ' which occasionally enga^^e our particular attention ; 
one of them respects the political constitutions of 
this, and the other provinces ; the other, the state 
iti <Mur religious institutions. It is contended by 
some, that it were better that material changes 
should take place in the colonial c<mstitutions ; 
others, while they desire to perpetuate the present 
forms of government, express their regrets that we 
bare not a national church, which they would es« 
taUish, and place upon the same footing as at home* 
With th«M latter reas(mers, I confess I decidedly 
agree ; nor do I think, that religion can exercise its 
BOMl salutary influence over our morals, or kindly 
tsotper the feelings and sympathies between the rich 
and tbe poor, idthout those guides which define, and 
those eonunoR bonds which unite die different in- 
terests among the people, in most of the countries 
of Eiurope. But as to changing the present forms 
of civil polity, there is no precedent for it ; it would 
endaoiger that happy connection with the old country 
winch none are so bliml to our true and common 
interests, or so regardless of ancient recollec^ns„ 
as to desire." 

**I decidedly difier from you in ojMnioci," sajd a 
younger politician^ ^'-in respect to the preservatipn 

980 THE EMII^RAMt's lNTB0D€CTt014. 

of our present forms of goveraiment. Tho^e irlio 
believe that changes are always dongerotts, seem to 
me to regard the <sondition of society as perfe^ — 
at its climax of excellence — ^and^ knowledge no 
longer progressive. As for me, I am fi/mly per- 
suaded that some wholesome changes mght' be 
made, without endangering die.permaneiHsy of our 
British connection. In church matters I do not so 
decidedly disagree with you." 

The next who spoke thought religion a matter 
between man individually, and his Maker, and not 
a subject for legislation or social obligations. ^^ I 
am not of opinion," said he, ''that any hodj of falli- 
ble mortals, assembled to suggest measures and dis- 
cuss the wisdom or folly of the several means pro- 
posed for the amelioration or regulation of our social 
affairs, can consistently or lawfully meddle with 
religious matters, or institute special creeds. These 
are not subjects for legislation, except, as far as re- 
spects the conservation of the freedom of thought, 
and the protection of the weaker party against the 
interference and aggreission of the stronger. I think 
it were better that matters should remain as they 
are. We cannot complain of the prevalence of 
superstition, or of fanaticism ; and this state of things 
arises from our giving no exclusive privileges to any 
church, party, or sect. In the mean time, if the 
moral conduct of our population, and the oharity of 
feveral denominations and sects towards each other, 
be compared with that of our countrymen at home, 
we shall not, I think, appear to a disadvantage* We 

Q^Tisanlyio riot Ml behind out repablicail Migh*. 
boors in thesfe partieulard/' 

Seteral other intellig^mt settlers expressed their 
sentiments, and t^ discnssioti became more ani- 
mated i but, it did not, at any time, riolate the 
boundaries of deceney ; nor' did a single remark 
exceed the limits of kindness or good*breeding. 
Our host, at length, delivered his free and unbiassed 

" When at home," said he, ** I usually voted on 
the popular side of the question, because I consci- 
entiously believed, that the leaders of that party in 
the House of Commons were more likely to encou- 
rage the diffusion of knowledge, and maintain peace, 
than the party which had ruled during the long 
period that Great Britain had to struggle against 
the demon of destruction. The leaders of the party 
so long in office, seemed to me, indeed, to think, 
withodt sufficient reason, that no change could be 
introduced into the constitution, without weakening 
the force of that nervous arm, which had enabled 
us, in the day of trial, to triumph over so many 
enemies ; but, whether I was right, or whether I 
was wrong, I confess I know not. Great political 
changes have since taken place in the motber- 
^country, and, let us at least hope, that they may, on 
our own account, be attended with the best effetJts 
anticipated by the party which introduced them. 

" Respecting some of the constitutional questiotis 
which are agitated in' the provincial parlisLmienis, 
especially the most important, we may in some 

182 THS railCHRAlVT's IirTfi0D1KmON. 

sense be said to be in ddvande of the parent stafee^ 
and we have, therefore, no precedent to g^ide ua— ^ 
no analogy to reason from. On this aecouat> it 
bdboves us to be the more modest in expresinng oar 
opinions, and the more wary in adopting ev^j wild 
theory which is started. But, aboreall other things, 
it is ineumbent upon us to let the British govern* 
ment see, as plainly as we can show them, that none 
of our measures are undertaken with a view to an 
estrangement; more particularly, since several 
members of the British parliament have, at div^s 
times, expressed the most unnatural feelings to- 
wards us, at the rery time that we claim their 
guardianship and protection. Our in&ncy is passed: 
but, although we should be out of leading-strii^s, 
and of an age to be safely trusted to totter alone^ 
we are by no means capable of playing an inde* 
p^uient part in the great theatre of Uie world. It 
is for these reasons,'' added our host, *' that I am per* 
goaded that our political constitution wants but 
little, if any, alteration ; our religious institution^-^ 

Here the conrersation changed to other sulgeets. 
The most interesting and most ably discussed, were 
tho^ which concern the principles and practice ^ 
the atts, by which '^ our mother earth** is best pro- 
pitiated, and her *' natural bosom" made to yield 
the ineihaustible supplies of food and of clothing. 
The study of that portion of natural history which 
proclaims and dbcloses the wonderful operationii ot 
nature in her annual productions, and of those 

bilictui of knowMg^ whicli w« most iiftuimtely 
eomieetad with the nural oeavpBtioasi whether in 
ibt firsfllttMi nf thd maming uiidst the laboaraof 
A^ field, or. dwiag the hours of reIasatioii» nerer 
ioMs k9 ialereat with the settler* As the plough 
paifleg over iSm grouBcU he ohserres the yarietiea 
end the composition of the soil; by reading and me- 
^tatvcm, he laje up a stock of useful information 
re^pectingtfae eqmfaiUtjaiid quality <^ his land; and, 
m free discourse^ these stores of knowledge are die- 
plajed ; when new modes of management suggest 
themeeWes, and experiments are made, which intro* 
duoe the student to an acquaintance with those 
more abstruse and refined branches of physical 
science, to derelope the principles of which, the 
practice of his profession has opened a wide and 
fertile field; for-^ 

"^ Midde if tilt poverlU graoe, that liM 

In herbs, plants, stones, and their true foaUties." 

It should not be omitted^ that one of the speak* 
ero'. "aad he exhibited more intelligence and know* 
ledge than ean be here described-^was the son of e 
labourer of Waterfinrd. He emigrated with the 
fiunily of a fiirmer to whom he had been aj^ren* 
ticed, and remained with them three years. He 
thai began fin* himself widt his sarings of about 
£40, and as he had received a little education while 
in the fitrmer's &mily, he was able to turn his inde* 
pendent interccwse with Ae world to the better 

184 Tttx mD&Bsars's ntmonvcfnoiK. 

aceotint. He mamed, tke dttrd year «f his iode^ 
pendenee, one of the daughtMs of bis former 
madier — }ker portion atsow^^^-and/from that time, 
rapidly improved in his drcnmstaooes. He always 
kept an emigrant Seimily employed; bat each 
usually gave place to one more recently arriyed, 
every alternate year. They generally quitted him 
in a condition to begin on their own aceount ; and, 
as he encouraged them to settle near him, in ten or 
twelve years he had almost raised a settlement ; and 
was, at this time, twenty-two years after his emi- 
gration, the father often children, the possessor of 
a beautiful and well-stocked fiirm, and one of the 
magistrates for the district. 

Before taking leave of these little sketches of 
national characteristics, it is impossible to refrain 
from the notice of one or two remarkable instances 
of reform in morals, the circumstances regarding 
them having been in a peculiar manner under the 
writer's own observation. 

Although these examples did not occur in either 
of the provinces hitherto introduced to the notice of 
the reader, it will be better to <Uspose of. what is to 
be said on this subject, in this place, than have to 
relent to what is alike applicable to the state of 
society in each of the American colonies. The ex- 
posure would not dishonour the parties, or sudi of 
them as are living, even should this page be perused, 
irhioli is not likely, in the distant settlement where 
the iastanees occurred. 

A lad, die victim of bad example or n^lecW 

edt^Milff^ i^biNsrjr After his arrivaLin^AtiKerica. He ; 
i^fi^^' how^^er^ lakeii) Imt fmrdmied on aeoouat of bis 
tefndei* '^ge/ iThis onee deprsfred joutfe is- now 
a reBpecl&ble tnmiber of a- moral: comaaunky, 
and the fiither of a family, unstained by the sns- 
pieion of any vices or offences against soeiety 

Great anxiety was for 60i»e years < felt by the 
parent, lest the stain should not only rest upon 
himself, bnt also desoend to his children ; but these 
apprehensions, a proof of the sincerity of his reforso^ 
were very properly removed, by assurances from his 
foraier master, that the circumstance had not beei^ 
generally known ; and that, among those with whom 
the knowledge of it had at the time unavoidably 
spread, it had been attributed to the want of a moral 
education, and long ago forgiven and forgotten^ 

The next instance is the reformation of an old 
wonian : her station and influence were not such as 
to render her an example of much importance, as 
regards the progress of morals ; but any reform 
will serve to show the tendency of change of. pui^ 
suits and manner of living, to r^enerate the lost 
character ; and inferences, as strong, may doubtless 
be drawn from such an example, as from those 
where influence is greater, but sincerity, notr so 
certain. - ? 

An English lady Was once heard to siqr» dbat>ah9 
conld not b^Kevs that there was ev^ a& instance iif 
inebriety among her own sex. It is> neoestafy to 
confess, that a soKtary example <ir two, oCIanien- 


taUe depftrtare from the general ev^ii d^xntawat 
of the £ur mo: in tbi» pioticiilar, has imfortiuiatdy 
ftUen under the writer's obserratiDn : one of tbe 
wont W9A that which he is about to mention, with 
a yery d^erent motive b^em that ef soandaUaiag 

The remarkable old dame in question had crowned 
the Tices of ftlsehood aod deeeit with this more 
orert abomiiiation* Before leaving England, she 
had praetised upon, and married, an aged mechanie 
of unblemidied reputation, but of a speculative tarn 
of mind. He very injudiciously, at an age when it 
was better tibat he should have remained at home, 
eagi^ed to build mills in America, upon a hu^r 
scale than he was competent to manage, as well an 
account of his age, as the different character of tike 
greater part of the necessary labour in this and in 
that country. In spite, however, of these disad- 
vantages, and his wife's errors, which were noto- 
rious firom the first, through the vicinity <^ the 
s^lement in which he had planted himsdf, the in- 
dustrious old man, who lived but a few years after his 
arrival, left his widow in possession of the moi^y of 
the whole interest in a small mill, erected under his 
direction by the settiers among whom he had 
located. The wife, who had been gradually im- 
proving from the date of their first approach to in^ 
dqpcadence, lived several years afterwards, in easy 
circnmBtanees, and died, a person respectable and 

One more instance must be given « As the writer 

wss pemmg through % fiourishitig aettlemeat, ib 
Mmpaay wkh 4i gentleman but leidj arriTed £ram 
Siig^d, hb atisntiaii wa0 attracted by the BeatM08, 
and fagliah appearanee of oemfbrt, of a 8»aU 
lioiue, iBteoding, as is ofval in America, aboait ikirif 
yards or so from ibe road. As he stopped with his 
gnwt|>Bnion to look around, a rather well-dressed 
poESMi 0f middle age approached, and requested 
Ihat Hiey would aU^t from their horses, and talce 
some refreshment. After having conyersed npuNS 
Ae subject erer nearest the settler's heart, and 
uppermoat in his thoughts, such as the state of the 
crops, the addition of nnmbers, and the improve- 
mnnts in hand, or in contemplation, diey walked 
round the farm with their host. He liad probably 
alxmt mty acres ander tillage, and possessed three 
yoke of oxen, twelve cows, three horses, and sixi^ 
sheep, ibesides pigs and poultry. Finding him very 
intelligent, and his quarters good, at his earnest 
raqnest they agreed to remain the night ; and 
having heartily supped, retired to their several ap- 
partments, slept well, rose early, and, after a good 
break&st, took their leave. As soon as they were 
again on their journey, the writer was asked by his 
companion, whether he had any knowledge of the 
history of their host of the past night ; and, 
having none, was informed, with every proper 
caution, that their new acquaintance was once a 
notorious character in London, that the crowning 
vice of the old lady above-mentioned, was but 
among the least of his faults ; and that, about fifteen 

18B tm £uioiiakt'& iMtMi>i;c!rtON. 

years ago, he had been arraigned at the bar of 
jtEstice, but discharged for want of evidence to sup- 
port the charges brought against him, although his 
guilt was beyond a doubt. Before they lefl; the 
settlement, they made several inquiries respecting 
his circumstances and respectability, and found that 
he had been twelve years located upon his present 
possession, had always borne an excellent character 
for honesty, sobriety, and industry, and was a 
forward and useful member of the various little 
associations for the furtherance of the interests of a 
new settlement ; and, that he possessed, above all, 
the most desirable virtue in a settler: — a proper 
paternal anxiety for the education, good morals^ and 
welfare of his children. 

Such examples as these afford the strongeist 
proofs, that the greater prevalence of immondity 
and crime in this and other populous countries, 
beyond what is observed in those . more thinly in- 
habited, owes its Existence to the distress and desti- 
tution experienced in the former, above that which 
is known in the latter. 

TKB xkigsamt's imtbodoctiqn. 189 



NovjL Scotia. — Oeographical Description.— Climate.— So3.— Agii- 
ciiltnre.-—lFl8heries.-— Mines. '— Haliftur.-^- GovemmeBt-Iaws.^- 
Popvktion. -<- Bevemte.— Commerce. -~ Prevailing Xanguage.*— 
Goote Shooting.— Cape Breton.— Situation.— Population. 

Nova Scotia, from its situation, commerce, and 
population, is the next of the provinces which claims 
our attention; but, as it does not offer equal advan- 
tages with the upper countries to the most numerous 
classes which emigrate, it is the less necessary to be 
as particular as heretofore. 

This peninsula lies between the latitudes of 42® 
and 46® north ; it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the Bay of Fundy ; 
and measures, at its extreme length, about 250 miles, 
but, it does not average above sixty in breadth. The 
external features of the country differ from those 
of the inland regions which have been described. 
Here, we have neither the magnificent mountain- 
scenery of the lower, nor the noble lakes of the 
upper countries upon the St. Lawrence, though 
there are many parts, not wanting in bold and 
striking imagery. The coast, except within the 

190 THE BMIORAHt'er IKTBdlM^TlOir. 

gulf, is generally rocky, and, throughout a consider- 
able portion of the interior, the soil is sterile, and 
ill-adapted to encourage the location of an agricul- 
tural people : yet, the districts that border upon 
the Bay of Fundy, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
exhibit scenery of the richest description, and are 
less subject to those fogs, (especially the tracts within 
the gulf,) which are so common upon the coasts of 
the Atlantic 

Tkt temperature of the climate, owing to the 
prevalence of southerly winds upo» the coatsts, is 
milder, though more variable, than that of &e 
Canadas in the same parallel of latitude. These 
winds do not reach the upper country, which is 
situated from twelve to fifteen degrees west of tlie 
peninsula ; or, do not in their course liiither, blow 
over the heated waters of the gulf stream ; virhidr, 
in the general theory of the North American climate, 
laid down at the commencement of the last chapter, 
is supposed to be the cause of the excessive wscrmih 
whicL they bring, when experienced at any season 
of the year upon the eastern coast of the whole of 
tha northern parts of the continent of America. 
They are generally, upon the coast, and frequently, 
even in the interior of this province, accompanied 
with fogs. During the prevalence of this incon- 
venience, however, the air is extremely mild, and 
the south wind and fog have no perceptible ill eflfects 
upon the health of thie inhaUtants, who are as 
robust a people as is to be met vrith in any part 
of the world. 


The richest awl most fertile districts of Nova 
Scotia are sitoated upon the basiii of mines, AeChit 
of Aiiapolis, a&d some parte of the gulf shore. 
Those through which the rirers flow which enqyty 
themselreB into this haein^ C9 Bum of the Bay of 
FuBdy, are often bordered by extensive pbans, of 
which the soil is of alluvial formation: these ai« 
called intervale lands by the settlers. Hie walars 
of the bay, by which they are annually irrigated, 
sapply them with a principle of inexhaustible fer« 
^ty ; y^, the pe^le of Nowt Scotia, before the 
close of the last war, wholly immersed m com-- 
memal enterprise and ext^isive speculations^ im- 
ported the greater part of their flour and other 
jMTovisions. The oeeupations of husbandry thi^ 
held in contempt ; and they esteemed their climate 
as to0 severe, and their soil as too barren, to aAwd 
a iaAr prospect of profitaUe returns ; or, that those 
&vored £slriots whidb yielded soabuodaatly where* 
ever improved, were witlmi too narrow a compass 
to be wer&y their attention; and, upon the 
return of peace, tibey regarded their condkion m 
alfuoBt wh<dly dependent upon foreign supply fer 
the moet necessary a»iieles of food, whicii would 
have- been a very unfbvorable position for the pro- 
sectttien of those pursuits, to which it was evident 
a part of their industry must now be turned. 

From this insensibility th^ were, however, 
awakened' by the ^lertions and example of the 
prinoipal persons in the colony, who took every 
mean^ to oonquer that Mse pride and igndrtede 

192 m«. bvigbavt's ikt^oiwotiom. 

of the principles of agricaltuFe, which bad left 
the most important inileresta oif the country in 
utter neglect. A board of agriculture was esta- 
blished in the capital, and the example was imitated 
throughout the districts, by the formatiou of branch 
societies. These active measures gave rise to a 
spirit, that quickly converted the unproductive, 
but fertile portions of the country, into abundant 
and fruitful fields. But, it must be confessed, that 
as neither these nor any other tracts are entirely 
exempt from fogs, the wheat crops are at all tuoaes 

Notwithstanding the comparative mildness of the 
climate of this province, and the advantages of its 
rich intervales, it cannot, on account of the preva- 
lence of these fogs, and the rugged and barren 
character of so large a. proportion of its surfiuse, be 
strictly designated an agricultural country ; and, it 
is probable, that the inhabitants will continue to 
r^fard commerce as the grand object of national 
attention. They are not insensible to the peculiar 
advantages which the natural position and internal 
resources of the peninsula afford, for the profitable 
direction of industry and enterprise. Among these, 
the most indisputable are, their cont^uity to the 
best fishing grounds upon the coast of America, the 
possession of the most valuable iron and copper 
mine|» and the abundance of coal of excellent 
quality with which their country is enriched* 

This latter most valuable staple must eventually 
lead to a profitable Invnch of trade with the states 

of tke tmioii, 'wbef e it is not found, tmi also, to a 
penowiest reciprocal intercoimie with the'sistor 
eobnies; none of vliich, except Cape Breton, now 
under the game government' as Nora Scotia, poesesB 
this inezhau&lible and pre<^as sooroe of national 
wealth ; whiliaits conflantption,' for the use o^lsteaai^ 
macUnerj in particular, must increase throughout 
America, as the forest* wood becomes more difficult 
to obtain. There are, also, cliffs of gyjilftum in. the 
Bay of Fundy, and the Gut of Canseau ; and thia 
osefiil aid, in the practice of southern husbandry, is 
not found in the United States, where it is in great 

HaK&z, the capital of this prorince, is situated 
widna a€tie and spacious harbour, to which it gires 
il8 name, upon the Atlantic shore. It contains 
about 15,000 hihabitants, and is a flourishing com- 
merdal town. It is protected by fortifications at 
tke entrance, and has a nayal establishment and a 
garrison ; and it has several handsome public build- 
ings, of which, the *^ Province Buildings'' is the 
most remarkable. 

There is no other considerable town in the 
province, although there are several well-built 
vill^es conreniently situated. Among^ these, the 
most distinguished for capability of improvement, 
amy be mentioned Windsor, and Pictou, and Truro. 
Wiudsor is situated upon the salmon^river, at the 
extreme head of ike basin of mines, and Truro upom 
the Avon, which &lls into the same vral^rs. * Pictou 
is sitdated withm a fine harbour in the <jnL{ of 

104 TBB bxicuukt's utNumvcxtov , 

St. LawreiMft^ and diieflj diemes ita ccmvMre^ and 
ite importance from tiMTmlnahle inm and coal^nmies 
wttk which thft district i» enridted ; it has, aho^ a 
ecmaideraUe trade in timber* 

The coasthntimi of Nurva Scotia is easentiallj 
the 8ame at that of UpperGanada ; and, to the unifocm 
mfldness and patriotism, whi^ fer a series of jnis, 
have been so oonspicttous in the administration <tf its 
gorremment, under the most able men^ this province 
owes nmch of its present pro^erity„ and the rank 
which it takes among the sister coktties. in die a«w 

The laws of Great Britain are modified or ex- 
plained by the provincial parliament at pleasnre, as 
tine experience of their effects shows this to be eon* 
veanent or necessary. 

The miliifcaTy establishment of the peoiosnh is 
npon. the same footing as tliat of the Canadaa. 

The present popnlation of this province is aboat 
150,000 souls. 

The annual public revalue, which majt he set at 
about 65,000 pounds, is derived from smail oem* 
mercial duties imposed by its ovm legidEatvre^ and 
is expended in the most necessary public works, 
such as, opening roads, constructing jMidges, 
ereeting public buildings, national education, and de 
formation and encouragement ot societies of general 
utility; in short, in the furtherance, of every imder- 
taking, calculated to promote the improvement and 
perpetuate the prosperity of the province. 

The commerce of this coiovy chiefly consists in 

TBS BMIOBAirt'» IVVBOOllOTtOir. 196 

ft steady lyftde with, the modielveowijbry and ih^ 
West Indies* Fvdnr the former, the cotoBosts inport 
theirenttfempidyof iBftttttliMtiired gQQi$; aAdfpom 
thelfttlsr, ftU those neoesMurjF articles of e(Hi8«aiption 
whjdii due Ae growth of the torrid seoe.^ Kn ex« 
change for tbtoe sttppUes^ thejF eatport^ t& Great 
BfitaiQ^ the Isatgft timbex whkdi their natire fonrsts 
ptodcKssiy astd, t» the West Lsdiesi. the produce ef 
their fisb^nes. Th&f ha^e iJso a direct trade with 
Chima, And tbe; hawe several ships eaagaged in* tine 
soothenn whale-ftshery. 

The Ittigftfl^ef the cooalr; is alto^ther English, 
exo€^ ia some lew settlesients, where there are 
still & eottfiodefable n«i|nber of the descendants of 
the AaeaUm French settlers, who were permitted 
to TBmmt m the province after its conquest. 

The doQBiestie habits and moral character of the 
No¥a Seotians» their eare of the education of youth, 
their religioiis, literary, and other institutions, so 
nearly reaemhle those oi the Upper Canadians,, that it 
ift unnecessary to> repeat even the Iktle that has been 
said respeclifig the papogress of improvement in these 
partiafilars,^ ia that prownee. 

Among die spoiliBg inhahitaata <^ this apid of all 
eoutttries upon the coaal, wild-goose shooting is a 
fiKf orite pwBsait, and is remarkable enough to^ de- 
mand parfieularnotiee. 

The geese pass tjke flummer in the r^ion ei La- 
brador, where Aey breed ; but, en the afproaeh of 
winiler, lb^ seek a milder dimate, and raooiain, 
dufieng the severest «<aaon, south of the state of New 

K 2 

196 THE ehiobaitt's nrrsoDircTtoK. 

York. They are shot in autumn and spring, as they 
pass over these countries, proceeding soath, and re- 
turning. The spring'shooting is quite an art, which 
requires practice to acquire, and great skill to 
render successful. It commences about the middle 
of March, and usually lasts three weeks or a month. 
When the geese first make their appearance, there 
are commonly but a few holes or channek open in 
the rirers or bays, occasioned by the rapidity of the 
current, and to these the sportsmen resort. They 
generally go in pairs, drawing after them a small 
sleigh, or sledge, with guns, ammunition, and pro- 
visions for two or three days, a blanket, and one or 
two dozen decoy geese. The decoys are made by 
the Indiansof cedar-wood, shaped, and so painted, as 
exactly to resemble geese. The first operation is to 
cut out large square pieces of ice, where it happens 
to be abou'tsix or nine inches thick. With these, an 
ice-house, as it is termed, is built. Tliis consists of 
mere wfdls of ice, about two feet and a half h^h, 
and, must be large enough for two persons to turn 
round upon theii* hands and knees, with their guns 
in their hands. As soon as the ice-house is finished, 
the sportsmen proceed to range their decoys on that 
side which, observation upon the wind, the flight 
of the birds, which is sometimes governed by the 
shape or position of the land, the state of the open- 
ing in the ice, and such other circumstances as ex- 
perience has taught them the necessity of attending 
to. They next spread spruce boughs for the floor, 
and coyer these with a blanket. They then robe 


themselres from cap to moccassin^ entirely in white, 
and skulk behind their walls. As soon as a flock of 
geese appears in sight, or seems attracted by the 
decoys, it is necessary to keep up the deception, by 
imitating their distinct calls as they fly forwards, or 
incline downwards, which accomplishment demands 
a season or two, with expert Indians, thoroughly to 
acquire. The geese, thus deceived, will, if allowed, 
actually settle and walk about among the decoys; 
but, the sportsmen generally rise upon their knees 
before the birds alight, and, taking advantage of the 
confusion their appearance occasions, each selects 
his mark, and, if two are killed, always knows his 
own bird. 

This sport is sometimes persevered in for weeks, 
the sportsmen camping in the nearest wood, which 
is most likely on some small island in the river or 
bay. It is not so cold adiversionasmightbeimagiined. 
When there is little wind, the sun is sometimes so 
hot within the roofless ice-house, that the most vigi- 
lant fowlers will grow drowsy, and fall asleep, and 
when they awake, they perhaps find a number of 
living geese- walking about among their decoys. In 
case of this good fortune, a shot through a loop-hole 
may kill two or three at a time. When the season is 
nearly over, the sportsmen continue their vocation, 
floating about among the loose ice in a canoe painted 



Which J6 Et pntsoiit united irith rad uoder tke Mtme 
govvniiiient asKova Scotia^ dthovgli it Be^er pofr- 
9e»sed a Tepresentaftire coneHbitiMaon, waa^ until 
lately^ iodependeat of aay oAer {KroTiaoe : oa tbis 
aocoiint^ as weU. as from its geographieal poaitioiiy 
it is necessary to aotiee it separatdij. 

Hub ifilaad, togeAer witib Newfoundlaiul» tanoB 
the eastern barrier of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. At 
its Borthem extremtty us the ki^eai of the three 
great entrances into the gulf, &>med by the north 
eape of the idand, and Gape Bay at the south- 
iresiera extremity of Newfoundland. OnUie8onth| 
the Ont of Gaaseau sepan^es it from Noya Scotia 
Proper, aad finmns Ihe southam entrance iolo the 
gulf, it is in lengA about KK) vmim^ hut its 
breadth, which varies from thirty itot w^ymxfy or 
eighly^ wiMild not aveiage ahore nxty. The aaost 
eastern part of the ooaat upon the Atlaotia, unlike 
that of Nora Scotia, is low and woody; but the 
range of coimtry between Cape North and its 
souAiem extremity wijlhin Ihe gulf, is mountaaiOBS 
and barren, and £t only for its present tenants, the 
moose deer and other wild animals ; and, it is rarely 
visited, but by some wandering Micmac Indians for 
the purposes of the chace. Eastward of this sterile 


portion there are large tracts of alluvial soil, as well 
as upland, well adapted for cultivation, and par* 
taking much of the qualities of the fertile soils of 
Nova Scotia ; but the climate is more severe than 
in the favored districts of that province, and the 
white crops are more precarious. 

This tract of the country is much intersected with 
salt-water lakes, or arms of the sea. Near the 
entrance to one of these upon the River Dartmouth, 
on the northern coast, is situated the town of 
Sydney. This was the capital of the island before 
its union with Nova Scotia. It does not contun 
above a thousand inhabitants. Arichat is the next 
mo9t cofnsidenble village. It is situated upon Isle 
Madame, which is only separated from the bmua 
islttul by a narrow strait* 

The pofmlatioii of Cape Breton does not exoeed 
20,000 souls. A groat pr3|M>rtiou of the settlers are 
of French extraotioB, or H%hland Scotch. Their 
principal business is fishing, and the commerce to 
which this lucrative employm«[it gives rise ; end, 
Ibr these pursuits, their situation is well-adapted. 
Arichat is the centre of this trade. From Sydney 
are exported eoals of exisellfint quality, in great 




Situation.— General Appearance.— Rivers. — Principal TowH8.<<-Con« 
stitution.-^Revenue.-PopuIation.— Steam Navigation.— Climate. 

This province is situated between Nova Scotia 
and the Canadas ; to the former of which, it is 
jomed by an isthmus, formed by the Bay of Fundy 
and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It is bounded on the 
north by the Canadian territory, and on die west by 
the River St. Croix, which is the line of demarca- 
tion between the United States and the Briti^ 
possessions: and, on the east and south, by the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy. Its 
extent from east to west is about 130 miles, and 
from north to south about 200. 

The general aspect of the country differs from 
that of Nova Scotia, as well as the Canada^. If we 
compare it with Nova Scotia, we shall not find that 
proportion of waste and sterile lands which occupy 
such extensive tracts of that country ; but, if we 
compare it with the Canadas, we shall find it want« 
ing in the noble and sublime features which those 
regions exhibit ; yet, in the richness and splendour 

THB swobaiit's jqiiqoductiof. 201 

of the nataral forest, and the softer beiraties of the 
landscape, together with the advantages of situation 
for extensive trade and fisheries, nature has not 
been less bountiful to this province in her choicest 
endowments. Many rivers wind their course 
through the most remote districts, emptying them- 
selves into the Oulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of 
Fundy ; and, on every side, as you mount the streams, 
the land rises, sometimes abruptly, and sometimes 
with gradual steps, orgraceful slopes, from the smaller 
hills to the more mountainous tracts, presenting to 
the eye a richness and beauty which equals that 
of any forest scenery to be met with, ia America. 

The extoisive and most fertile districts in the in* 
tenor of this province have been scarcely entered. 
Government 1ms, however, lately sold a large tract 
of country to a land company, through whose means, 
agricultural settlements are forming, which will, in 
a few years, lay open the certain source of riches 
to the future inhabitants of New Brunswick. 

The present population of this province i& about 
130,000 souls. 

The principal rivers of New Brunswick are the 
St. Croix, the St. John's, and theMiramichi. Upon 
these are seated the chief towns of this province. 
St. John's, the most populous, is situated near the 
entrance of the River St. John, upon the Bay of 
Fundy; St. Andrews, at the entrance of the 
St. Croix, which empties itself into Passamaquoddi 
Bay ; and the towns and settlements of Chatham 



awd Neweaide (together, mov^ oMumndf calied 
MiPsndeM) about twenty miles fiiotti lite saottth <of 
the Biifier Mmmklii, midch. flows into the Galf of 
St. Ltttrience. 

Fiiedemftoii, the seat of the gmemmeaA^ etends 
upon a befttttifiil spot of gtroand on the BjTer 
St. John, about minety mites from its meoth* it 
coBtaiDs, at pmeeat, mTeryineoiiBideittible popmhstkni 
ef Bbfpst 4000 ^cmis, ifhH^ ^ City ef St. John, 
dilHaAted fiea^ tKe entrance 'Crf the Th>er, has abcmt 
}OXX)0 4«sideBt iiihabita«ts. 

The 'Oomtitation of N«w BruttMriok is the aaaw 
86 that of the other «ol<mies; and, the laws of 
England ape in lerrce, as in Upper CSanMbi and BToTa 
Scdtia, v/hefBL «ot siitered or aiia>ended by Ae ooknai 
legi^latupe. This, liewe^ner, is vendered tomatmAj 
neeessaiy, liy the ^adgenees and loeal affaira of the 

'Ylie revenue of Ae proiriaoe as derived froni its 
commerce, which differs from that <of No?a Scotia, 
in the greater quanlaty of timber exported to the 
United Kingdom, and of lumber and pvorimtes to 
the West Indies. More ships are also innlt in this 
province ; b«t, its Ifieherfes Bare iafimor to dvose of 
!Ntrm Boo^. Miramiein •and St. J49hn's are the 
chief commercial portis. 7vora Miremiehi is.ex-* 
ported Ae greater iqnaniity ef'4ini%er, wUle tbe 
merdbants of St. John's, t)wing to tiieir conv^iMciit 
t;ituatton, are more extensiirefly engaged in the West 
India Trade, and diey have several «hips, aiso. 

TBB bmk^waht's xmtbojouotiok. 2Q3 

employed la thQ soatharn wluile^ftshery* Diiriag 
ibewi^t^ «e«fi<m t^ Mirauuohi is qlosedj while the 
porta in the Ba.7 of Fimdy ai?e atiU iM^qesMble. 

The military establishments eonsist, as in Noya 
Scotia and the Canadas, of a regular British force^ 
and a numerous colonial militia. 

This prorinee posaessea an esttensive inland water 
^(HiimnnicatiQB, and mnka next to the Canadas in 
the perfection and extensive application of stcam- 
maehinery to the purposes of navigation. 

New Brunswick, like Upper Canada and Nova 
Scotia, whether from chance or the king's bounty^ 
has been greatly favored in its governors, which is a 
material point in theevly i^uggles of a new eoantry. 
The inhabitants of this province, like those of Nova 
Sootiia, were first roused from their s^zpineness 
and indiflGarenee to the agricultural interests of the 
country, by the example of the governor, in eonjune-t 
tiim with the prinsipal persons in the colony* 
There is no interest in a newly-aettled ta*ritory» 
diat is not more or less affected by the abilities 
and disposition of His Majesty's earlier rBpr&- 

Su^ obBervataons as have be^a made eoneerning 
the manners, the langfuige, ths religion, and the 
state of edacatiott, in speaking of the other purely 
British colonies, apply equally to New Brunswick* 

A peculiar method of making winier roads or 
brid^^over the ice.on the bap or rivera, demands 
notioehere, as being more prantiaed in this province 
than any other. As soon as the river is &oa», sprues 


boiigbs are placed along the track over whieh we 
wish to pas$« These gather €aiow^ and water hemg 
introduced, the frost binds all together, making a 
j90lid mass of iee, so firm that the road will often be 
passable after the ice has nearly disappeared on bo A 
sides of it. 

Large tracts of the country abound here, aa 
in Canada, with that species of maple, yrhiok yields 
abundance of sap for the manufacture of sugar. 
The best method of obtaining the sap is, to bore 
an auger-hole, two or three inches deep, a few 
feet from the ground, inclining upwards, from 
which a chip should be made to project, that the 
juice may drip from it into a spout which is usually 
made of birch*bark, and thence into a wooden 
trough, or any other Tessel placed at the foot of the 
tree. The trees yield their juices more freely before 
the snow is off the ground in the woods, in early 
spring. The sugar procured from each tree 
averages about four pounds every year. A number 
of trees are tapped, as it is termed, near the settler's 
dwelling, and the whole family usually encamp in 
the woods for several days, while they collect the 
sap, and manufacture their twelve*months impply of 
sugar, by the simple process of boiling. 

The climate of those districts of this province 
which lie upon the Bay of Fundy, is similar to that 
of Nova Scotia: but, towards the north, it re* 
sembles that of Lower Canada. The extreme cold 
which is here experienced, is no doubt owing^ 
in addition to the high latitude of this porti<m of 

THE emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 206 

the country, to the vicinity of those mountainous 
lands which stretch along the southern coast of the 
River St. Lawrence. 

The soil in general, throughout the province, 
is extremely fertile, and well adapted to the 
purposes of agriculture ; but, until some very active 
measures are taken, to encourage the influx and 
settlement of emigrants from the agricultural 
districts in Britain, its millions of acres of unpro- 
ductive good land will continue to present an 
almost unbroken forest, to excite admiration, and 
fill the mind with speculative dreams of the future 
greatness and wealth of a country possessing such 
boundless resources, and so easy of access, by the 
numerous rivers which intersect it in every direc- 




Situation.— Climate.— Appearance from the Sea. — Forests.— Har- 
bours. — Rivers.-*ConBtitution.— Population.— Language. 

Prii^oe Edward Islakb is the last of those 
colonies of which it will be necessary to particularize 
such matters as seem to present the chief objects of 
interest with those for whose reading these loose 
sketches are especially intended. 

This island is, in point of extent, population, 
revenue, and commerce, the most inconsiderable of 
all the North American colonies. If we contemplate 
the advantages which it enjoys, in the fertility of its 
soil, the salubrity of its climate, and the fine har- 
bours into which the rivers flow, which water every 
district, the languishing state of its agriculture, in 
comparison with that of the other colonies until 
a late period, is, at first view, unaccountable; 
but, as it is a colony which will probably ere long 
become the destination and home of a greater pro- 
portion of agricultural emigrants than it has hitherto 
attracted, the causes of its long infancy shall be 
accounted for, in a few observations which will 
find a place in the next chapter. 

This island is situated at the bottom of the great 
bay, on the south side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
formed by the surrounding countries of New Bruns- 

wide. If ora Seotia, and Cape Breton* It is about 
IflO unkB ia lengthy but Tari6» firom ten to thirty in 
bveadtlu It iiee between the latitndas of 46'' and 47<^ 
north ; bat the told whjch k here eKperienced is not 
80 asTem, for reaeoos which hiv^e beesa given in the 
few general obserTatiom already made concerning 
the caoaes of the varieties and peculiarities of the 
North Amerieaa climates, aa that which is felt in 
the parallel countries of the interior. 

The climate of tb^ island, in many particulars, 
bears a nearer resemUaaee to that of Lower Canada 
about Mimtreal^ which is a degree and a half south 
of Qael)ee, than to thai; of any of Ae other provinces. 
The fogs, 80 common in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, 
and a part of New Bmnswick, are here altogether 
unknown^ It is difficult to account for this partiality 
of the elements^ unless we suppose, that the exha- 
lations from the ocean, having passed over those 
higher lands which lie in that direction, still rising, 
as dhqr approach the idand, sweep over the land in 
ih^ form of ekmds, which do not return their con- 
tents to the earth, until meeting with contraiy cur- 
rents cf air, their sudden condensation produces 
those torrento of rain, so comaskon all over America^ 
upon the cdbaogtag of the wind to the north-west, 
which is always the case after a south-easterly gale« 

The summer is not so oppressively hot, in this 
province, as in Upper Canada ; but the winter is 
more severe and unsteady than in the western-dis- 
tricts of that &v0red region, the temperature of the 
atmosphere oscillating more frequently, and in a 


greater degree, within a dborter space of tmie* 
Nevertheless, these yariations contribute to render 
the winter roads more firm and agreeable to the 
traveller ; for, without some humidity, the snow does 
not easily *' bind," but, drifting wi^ the wind like 
loose sand, contributes to impede the travelling, by 
obstructing, or blocking up the roads, especially 
where the country is cleared. The south wind is 
looked forward to, during the winter season, and 
the amelioration of temperature which attends it, 
more on this account, than from any personal, or 
other inconvenience, experienced from the cold. 

The duration of winter is about the same as at 
Quebec, which is in near an equal parallel of lati- 
tude ; but, it is longer and more fickle than in the 
district of St. Francis, which has been noticed as the 
most southern and most favored portion of Lower 

Tlie average time, at which this season com- 
mences, may be about the fifteenth of November, 
and it commonly ends between the vernal equinox 
and the middle of April ; so that, early in May, the 
heat of the sun is often oppressive, and the operations 
of husbandry are sometimes in ftiU activity. But, 
notwithstanding the severity of the seasons, and the 
changeable character of the atmosphere, the inhabit 
tants of the island enjoy a climate remarkably 
healthy, and are not subjected to the effects of any 
endemic disorder whatsoever. The soil is dry, the 
air is pure, and the waters are wholesome ; and in- 

stances of longevity are common in every settlement* 

TUB bmiobavt's nrnooiMimoF. 209 

The appewance of the ooaat differs from that of 
the eontinental provinees. The island is entirely 
surroanded with red cliflfb, with the exception of the 
bays upon the northern shore, which are fronted by 
banks and ridges of sand-hills. As you approach 
the land in some directions, the hills in the interior 
first rise abore the water ; and, where the shores in 
front of these higher lands are brought under cul- 
tivation, the caup'ifceil presents scenery, no less 
beautiful than uncommon upon the coast of Ame- 
rica ; but where the land is low and level, and the 
ground remains uncultivated, the tops of the thick 
foreat^trees first break the snKM)th line of the watery 
horizon, and the cliffs, to the very brink, crowded 
with the richest foliage, bear abundant eridence of 
the richness and fecundity of the soil. 

The bays, which form the exception, have sand- 
hills stretching across their fronts, which show no 
signs of vegetation when seen from the sea, and pro- 
duce nothing but a wild pea, and a coarse description 
of grass, cmly esteemed by those who are habitually 
idle, or too insecure in their possessions to be en- 
couraged to expend the necessary labour to obtain 

Throughout the island there are no mountains, 
no waterfialls, no prairies, nor any natural objects of 
grandeur or great interest ; yet a considerable por- 
tion of the country is finely undulated, and varied 
with hill and dale, and many instances occur upon 
the bays and rivers, where the scenery is extremely 
picturesque and beautiful. From its eastern to its 

210 Tss wiioBAn's mwmvQiwVi 

irestem extr«»ity, it displays a luxttriaot forfst, 
prodadbg almolt every cUye^fy of vegetetkm 
known ia that parallel of latteude ia Ainerloa, aad 
unfaroken by aay intenniflasoQS or ckaems, save tbose 
whii^ the hand of civiliaed man has effactedy ia sub- 
jectiog the primeval wooda lo the operation of the 
axe, and the soil lo the parposea of oiiltiTaUoa and 

The island has several fine harhoara^aiid is inter^* 
aeetedwitili rivers throughoutevery district. TbeioBOBt 
eo«imodioaa«Qd convenieQt ports arO) Hillsborough, 
Three Rivers, Malpec, Cascun^c, Bedeque, and 
Marray4iarhour. The finest rivers are tha Hillsv 
boroBgh, the Elliot, and the York. HiUsborongh- 
harbour is formed by the waters of these there 
principal rivers, which, at their confluence, form a 
commodious basin with a narrow oudet into a more 
spacious bay. Upcm a farored spot within the inner 
harbour stands Gharlotte^Town^ the capital of the 
island, and the seat of the goversaodeat. It contains 
about 2000 inhabitants. There is no other settle- 
ment in the island worthy the name of a town. 

The constitution of the government, the courts of 
justice, and the judicial practice, are the same as in 
the other colonies* The law does not differ £nom 
that of England, unless altered by the provincial 
legislature, and the island code is not considered in- 
ferior to any which has been firanaed or adopted in 
the sister provinc08. 

The present popalation of the island is about forty- 
thousand souls. 

THa shiorast's nmoDfrcTKffT. 211 

Tke coimneiiee of the tatvairyy frooi wkidi the 
rerocive is deriTed, is not great. It chiefly ooasiMi 
of tfie export of comaQd oiher agriealinfal prodsoe, 
witk bhick cattle, horses, and Ivmber, to Newfibuiid«- 
landjuad the West Indies; and a small quantity of 
timher, frith some shi^ buiit n the coaatry, and 
sometiaies bread ooni, to the United Kingdonu 
There are no mann&ctories in this ooiony, except 
far some trifling articles of domestie consnniptioii. 

There is no oversi^t, &r which the islanders aane 
so fabsneofale, as their neglect of the mannfaoture of 
peail-iash imd pot^ash. These yalnablie articles of 
eosnmerce have long been a source of wealth to 
GsimmUi, aiid ihe staple raw material for their pro** 
dnetion, which is die beech-tree, is abundant 
duroughont the greater portion of the island. 

The English language is every where spoken, 
except in some of the HigUani^and Arcadian sel^tle- 
m^its, where die setders still preserve the native 
tongue of their ancestors, and often, no other. is 
understood by the women. But except in one or 
two isolated and remote yillsges, the men nnderr 
stand, and in general speak, the predominant Ian- 
gnage of die country. 

As it has been already said that the whole &ce of 
the eountcy, in its primitive state, presents a bea«iti« 
fill Sorest, whbh sufficiendy indicates the quality of 
the ground, it is not necessary to say anydsing 
furdier concerning the soil's fertility. The earth is 
of a red colour, and ordinarily light, and easily 
ploughed with one horse ; but it never requires more 


than two, although its texture k in some places stiff 
and inclining to clay. In some parts a rich marl 
forms the suhsoil ; in others, within a few feet of 
the surface, lies a solid bed of sand-stone, which 
hardens when exposed to the air, and is admirably 
adapted, though Utde used, for Iht purposes of 
building. The particular properties of the soil are 
not always indicated by its virgin production, as is 
evident from the promiscuous growth of the greater 
part of the herbs which are common in the same 
latitude, with the uncertainty of what may succeed 
when the natural woods are swept away, and the 
ground is left undisturbed, long enough to afford time 
for a ** second growth." This sometimes happens, 
from the indecision or ill-directed labours of new set- 
tlers, who set themselves down for a short time, and 
then abandon their possessions. 

There are tracts of woodlands which were cleared 
and cultivated by the Arcadians, before the island 
fell into the hands of the English, where the pheno- 
menon of change in production is very remarkable. 
Upon the best soils, however, nature throws up her 
diversities of v^etation more luxuriantly ; and where 
the birch, beech, maple, and oak, of their several 
species, interspersed with the varieties of fir, most 
predominate, and attain the greatest perfection, 
they are justly deemed the certain indications of the 
superior qualities of the soil. 



Forms the north-eastern barrier of the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence. It contains a population of about 75,000 
souls, and is one of the most important appendages 
to the British crown ; but as its value mainly arises 
out of its fisheries and its commerce ; and, as the 
prospect which it offers is more distantly related to 
our subject than the expectations that those colonies 
excite, which so strikingly invite the attention of the 
British emigrant, any details concerning it are not 
necessary to the present purpose. 

214 •IBB BinQBAira's imntoDUcnoir. 


Summary of the foregoing Remarks.— -Relations of the Colonies to 
the United States. — lies to the Mother Country.— Advantages •£ 
their present Positioa. 

Such are the leading features which eharaeterize 
the six British provinces in America. Lower Ca- 
nada, the most popuh)us and moat wealthy^fojrtuiiate 
in its early settlement , is rapidly proceeding toward 
maturity 9 and if due attention be paid to its settle- 
ment and interests, the inhabitants will ere long be- 
come as prosperous and contented as those of any 
colony whatsoever. 

The Upper country, though yielding to the Lower, 
in population and extent of cultivated territory, is 
superior to that province in climate, and in the 
natural productiveness of the soil, and is, therefore, 
capable of supporting a much greater number of 
inhabitants. It is happy, also, in its more simple 
code of laws, and the absence of those political dif- 
ferences, which, in the Lower Province, have sprung 
up out of the incongruous mixture of English and 
French law, and the indeterminate character of some 
of the institutions of that colony ; but most of all so, 
in having been under the government of patriotic 
men, by whom its interests have been studied, under- 
stood, and zealously pursued. 

Thus &vored, this colony is beginning to show 
signs of approach to that leading rank among the 

TSB bkiqbakt's iiTTitaimcTioir. 216 

proTmces, whiek it is calculated by nature U> attain, 
Aoiild the two Canadaa still remain under distiacli 
gOTemments. But for many reasons, more particu- 
larly on account of the diflKculty of proportioning 
the rerenues, which are raised by an imposition upon 
imports, this, may not, after mature consideration, 
appear to be the best poUey. There is no port in 
thia province, at which theae imposts could be separ 
rately collected, and this inconvenieiice might he 
remedied by re*uiutiBg the two provinces under one 
gOTemment, with Montreal for the capital* Or, 
should such re^unioa appear to present too many 
obstacles, at least, the most apparent ineonyenience 
might be removed,, and differences perhaps compro* 
mised, by disjoining the islimd of Montreal from/ 
the Lower, and attaching it to the Upper province. 
This would give a port of entry to Uf^r Cainada, 
which is always a great desideratum, with a growing 
country » inhabited by a people of an aiterprising and 
Qomm^cial genius. 

The iaerease. of population in the Upper country 
is beyond all former experience : it probably pro* 
ceeds in a ratio of not lees than double in every 
seven or ten years. By these rapid strides^ that 
colony may be expected, unless effective measures 
be taken to populate the St. Francis district, to out- 
strip the Lower province within a shorter space of 
time than was calculated upon, when the separation 
took place, or before the late increase of British 
emigration. To the active and wellrdirected exer» 
tions of the company, to whom the gpff eminent^ as 

216 THE buigbant's ivtboductioh* 

before-mentioned, made extensive sales of wildemess 
lands, and to the capital and labour which hare 
been by tiiis means introduced into the country, by 
which settlements have been formed, upon principles 
calculated to encourage cultivation, and open such 
new sources of wealth as will give employment, and 
make provision for the future, may be, in a great 
degree, attributed the present flourishing condition 
of Upper Canada. 

Nova Scotia has been regarded more as a com- 
mercial country, on account of its resources in the 
produce of its mines, and its established «nd profit- 
able fisheries, although a great part of the country 
offers to the agriculturist, also, a fair scope for the 
exercise of his vocation, at the same time that the 
more dense population of the commercial districts 
affords an internal market of steady and sure gain. 

New Brunswick, which will never perhaps sur- 
pass Nova Scotia, in the extent of valuable fisheries^ 
or the profitable application of mineral resources, is 
not, neyertheless, inferior to any of the provinces, in 
natural productions. Its soil is abundantly fertile, 
and its forests of exportable timber and materials 
for ship-building are almost inexhaustible; and 
these advantages will assuredly produce regular and 
lasting channels of commerce and increasing wealth, 
to the enterprising people whose industry has ac- 
complished its present prosperity. , 

Prince Edward Island, which enjoys some ad- 
vantage in its geographical position, and possesses 
a salubrious atmosphere, and fertile soil, seems by 

T^E emigrant's introductions* 217 

nature intended to keep pace in general improve- 
ment, with the finest countries upon the continent : 
yet was this Island, until a late period of its history, 
less forward in its institutions, and the condition of 
its agriculture, than every other province, except 
Cape Britain, considered as distinct from Kova 

Among the causes which contributed to at least 
t}ie more tardy settlement of the country than 
was anticipated by the Government, by whom the 
island was divided into townships of twenty thousand 
acres each, which were severally granted to British 
noUemen and others, for the two- fold purpose of 
riusing a colony, and rewarding meritorious ser* 
vices, the most apparent, only, need notice. 

After the distribution of the lands, attempts were 
made by several of the proprietors to form settle- 
ments in the country, but from the want of support 
from the local government, and the want of union of 
design and a combination of interests, their efforts 
were unsuccessful; so that the only measure that 
seemed practicable for raising colonies in America 
at that time, was not attended with the results which 
had been anticipated. 

Emigration, both as to the arrangements attending 
shipment and settlement, and the character of emi- 
grants, was at that period on a very different footing 
firom that on which it stands at present ; the mother- 
country was engaged in war, and the burden of ex- 
cess of population, which after the peace began to 

218 THE emigrant's introduction. 

press so heavily upon the nation, had not been felt. 
To transfer emigrants, which was the only means of 
obtaining them, was attended with enormous ex- 
penses, which promised for many years no returns. 
None, indeed, were to be obtained, except the most 
dissolute in England, or the poorest in Scotland. 
Many of the latter were sent, but they wanted know- 
ledge as well as enterprise, and that spirit of im- 
provement, so general in the colonies at the present 
day, never existed among them. 

In most of the other colonies, large sums of 
money were expended by the government in fortifi- 
cations, in canals, and in public buildings^ but 
this advantage was not extended to the inhabitants 
of this Island. 

As emigration to America began to increase, and, 
in some instances, long before this, several of the pro- 
prietors formed establishments in the country, and 
expended considerable sums in the endeavour to settle 
and make their lands productive. But some of 
these were despoiled by the rapacious and lawless 
officers of the crown, and others entrusted the 
management of their estates to unqualified agents, 
who were alike unfitted to originate or carry into 
efi'^ct any plans, however certain in their ultimate 
results, that promise neither extravagant or imme- 
diate gains. And the greater part had engagements 
too pressing at home to permit them to reside, or per- 
sonally attend to their affairs in the Colony ; besides 
those attempts, which had failed from these causes, 


with, almost the singly exception of the late Earl of 
Selkirk, the moBt able and most enterprising Briton 
that ever visited these colonies, no systematic plans 
of colonization, or any attempts at settlement, were 
undertaken upon a principle or a scale at all worthy 
so great an object. 

But the chief obstruction to the progress of im« 
provement, at a later period, must be attributed to 
the ill-judged measures of a series of inefficient 
governors. — 

'' The evil tkat men do, lives after them ; 
" The good is oft interred with their hones," 

By their misconception of the principles of the colo- 
nial system, or apathetic indifference to the interests 
of the mother-country, and the colony, they left every 
thing undone that was calculated to insure prospe- 
rity, or did nothing but mischief, by opposing every 
measure that was proposed by the colonists for the 
benefit of the country. This was the less excuse- 
able, after the experience of the effects of a more 
enlightened policy, in the success which had attended 
the united efforts of the executive and legislative 
branches of government in the neighbouring pro- 

The island, although possessing, in name a consti- 
tution similar to that of the other provinces, cannot 
indeed be said to have enjoyed civil liberty, until 
1824, when the last of those officers was withdrawn, 
whose neglect or oppression had arrested improve- 

L 2 


xnent, until the colony was cut-off from almost all 
external intercourse. 

During this period of misrule, the colonists held 
their possessions in uncertainty, and the state of 
their prospects was not such as to encourage capital- 
ists or industrious husbandmen to settle among 
them. It was their misfortune, that the members 
of the Assembly, in the earlier sessions, from a too 
great confidence in the executive government, or a 
misuse of their constitutional powers, had granted 
to the crown a perpetual revenue, to be raised by an 
imposition upon imports which were yearly increas- 
ing. This irretrievable error left the colonists 
entirely at the mercy of any oflScer, however ill- 
qualified or ill-disposed who should hereafter ad- 
minister the government. Thus the colonial par- 
liament was called together, prorogued, or dissolved, 
according to whim or caprice, and at one time, did 
not meet for several years ; so that the country 
reaped little or no advantage from the possession of 
a representative assembly. 

For a long season, every public work was neglected : 
the roads were overgrown, and the bridges decayed, 
or broken down, and swept away by the currents. 
Schools also, and all attention to education fell into 
neglect; so that those only, who could afford to 
send their children to another colony, or to England, 
had the means of procuring them the benefits of 

It might be supposed, that after the experience of 
the pernicious effects of the abuse of an authority 


unwarily bestowed, (for it could not be said to be 
usurped) the mischievous system might have been 
speedily overthrown ; but the obstruction to com- 
merce, and the depression of the energies of the 
colonists, had so circumscribed their intercourse, 
that their very character imperceptibly sank, until 
it was held so low in estimation, that their feeble 
complaints were entirely disregarded. Even the 
settlers in the neighbouring provinces, better govern- 
ed and more peaceable themselves, mistaking the 
feelings which sprang out of the honest endeavours 
of their fellow colonists to shake off the intolerable 
yoke, for a turbulent and discontented spirit, did ndt 
hesitate to treat them as a rabble, unworthy to par- 
take of the blessings of a free constitution. 

At length, the true condition of the colony became 
too manifest to be mistaken by their fellow-subjects 
in the sister colonies, and too painful to be any longer 
endured by themselves, and they resorted to the only 
legal means left open to them, to make known to 
his Majesty's government the insufferable griev- 
ances of which they so justly complained. Numerous 
requisitions were forwarded to the high-sheriff of the 
island, who convened meetings throughout the 
country ; and a petition, almost universally signed, 
was sent to England by a respectable gentleman, an 
old resident. This led to the removal of the gover- 
nor and chief-justice, as soon as the season permit- 
ted their being replaced, and the colony was at once 
restored to its wonted tranquillity.* 

* During this contumacious gentleman's administration of the 
government of this colony, a rather curious experiment was tried 

222 THS emigraht's introduction. 

One remark should not be omitted; that the pati* 
ence of the colonists was not exhausted, until it was 
discovered that they had been represented to his 
Majesty's ministers as a disaffected people. The 
odium of this false representation, falling, though 
yery possibly, unjustly, upon the officer who adminis- 
tered the govemment, and from whose obstinate 
adherence to the most mistaken principles so much 
degradation and suffering had proceeded, aroused 
feelings which had been passive too long, and finally 
effected a happy emancipation. 

The late troubles, which had thrown some reflec- 
tions upon the minister of the crown, were well com- 
pensated by the fortunate appointment of an officer 
of experience in colonial afiairs, and whose amenity 
of disposition and ability well-qualified him for the 
government of a rbing colony. By active, yet mild 
and conciliatory measures, he speedily healed the 
wounds inflicted by his predecessors, and destroyed 
what remained of party spirit, after the cessation of 
the late political disturbances. 

ID political economy. An attempt was made to retain within the 
country, such portion of the circulating medium as had surYived 
the sweeping demands of the neighbouring prorinoes, to meet the 
yearly balance of trade against this unfortunate colony, during the 
depressed state of its agriculture. The coin in circulation consisted 
chiefly in Spanish dollars. These were punched; and out of the 
middle of each was taken a piece of the value of one^fifOi of the 
dollar, which is at the currency standard of five shillings. The ring 
which was left passed for four shillings^ and the button, aa it was 
termed; for one shilling. The Halifax merchants, however, with 
whom the islanders chiefly traded, knew very well the worth of 
silver in any form ; and the result of the experiment was a loss to 
the colony, as the ring and the button were not of the vuli^e of tl^ 
undefaced coin. 


The colonial parliament, which had not met for 
several years, was now convened; and adequate 
supplies were granted, and appropriated to the 
most useful purposes. Roads, which form an object 
of paramount importance in a new country, were 
opened or re-opened in every direction. Bridges 
gone to decay were rebuilt, or others constructed. 
In a word, the executive government united its efforts 
with the legislative assembly, in promoting the estab- 
lishment of institutions for the encouragement of 
education, and of the useful arts, and for the fur- 
therance of every popular national object; but, 
above all, for the effectual prosecution of the long- 
n^lected pursuit of agriculture. 

The new governor originated or seconded every 
measure which was introduced for the benefit of the 
country, and, by his own example, encouraged those 
pursuits that are the best adapted to its natural 
resources, which were now quickly developed ; so 
that, before the term of this officer's government 
expired, the island was restored to its rank among 
the peaceable and prosperous North American 

The memory of past troubles now remains but 
as a matter of interest in the little history of this 
colony. The evils which were experienced, no doubt 
in a great measure arose out of the imprudent 
grant of a perpetual revenue, before the principles 
of the constitution were well understood by the 
colonists. But this instance will stand as an ex- 
ample on record, for the future necessary caution of 


young countries, after the representative system has 
been established. 

The nature of free government, and the natural 
relations of landlord and tenant upon a new $oUy are 
now, however, better understood than formerly, and 
there is nothing wanting to promote the general 
interests, and to raise this island to that d^ree 
of importance to which its position and its soil entitle 
it, but the universal adoption, on the part of the 
landlords, of the principles by which the land com- 
panies in the Canadas, and New Brunswick, manage 
their extensive possessions. 

Throughout the whole of these provinces, the 
undeviating and sound policy which has been for 
several years pursued by the representatives of his 
majesty in administering the government, assisted 
by the most efficient men of local information within 
the colonies, has been conspicuous and happy. And, 
by the salutary effects of their united exertions, 
temples of peace have been erected, on foundations 
that insure their stability as long as the connection 
of parent state and colony is duly regulated and 
preserved; and the ties of kindred and mutual 
interest will doubtless contribute to extend this 
reciprocal obligation to an indefinite period of time. 

This appears a proper place to make a few obser- 
vations, not directly connected with the subject, but 
which it is difficult to refrain from introducing. 

Some persons, who have most assuredly taken a 
very confined view of our political relations iu 
America, or groimded their opinion upon infonua- 

THE emiorakt's introductiok. 226 

tion, into the accuracy of which they have not taken 
care to well-examine, have anticipated the possibility 
of the present British American possessions, belong- 
ing, at no distant period, to the United States; or, 
that they may at least desire to change their present 
European connection, to become individual members 
of that heterogeneal republic. 

In order to treat this supposition with as much 
earnestness as this brief notice of it will permit, let 
us in the first place inquire, what motives might 
influence the republicans to desire such union, and 
what considerations would operate with them against 
it ; and, secondly, how the colonists would like the 
connection, or view its propable consequences upon 
their prosperity; and, lastly, of the probability of the 
success of any attempt, to sever the ties and cancel 
the bonds of obligation which exist between the 
mother-country and her colonies, founded upon 
any other principles than those of mutual consent, 
and reciprocal advantage. 

The United States, by the accession of the present 
British colonies, would greatly aggrandize their 
territories, and open the St. Lawrence to the com- 
merce of the most western extremity of their domi- 
nions. That govei*nment would possess itself of the 
valuable mines of Canada, and gain fishing stations, 
which would render it formidable for a time, to 
any of the great maritime powers of Europe. It is 
not therefore surprising, that, upon a cursory review, 
the subject should have excited some jealous appre- 
hensions. But let us see what other circumstances 

L 5 

2i6 THE emigrant's IKTRODUCTION. 

exist, which must limit the desire, even of the repub- 
licans themselves, for the extention of their terri- 
tories, or of any increase in the number of the states. 
The northern and southern states, for reasons un- 
necessary to enumerate, have, and must continue to 
have, such different interests, that nothing but the 
nice balance, which has grown out of their acquired 
pursuits, their geographical position, and their in- 
crease in individual importance, could have retained 
them under one general government. The slightest 
.preponderance on either side, would destroy this 
equilibrium ; but the accession of the Canadas, 
and the opening of the St. Lawrence to the com- 
merce of the present United States, would throw 
incalculable advantages into the scale of the northern 
interests, sap the very foundations of concord, and, 
in a short time, pull down the whole structure of 
the delicately-cemented fabric of the federal union. 
But, supposing the existence of none of these ob- 
jections on the part of the Americans themselves ; 
how, as observed, would such amalgamation afiect 
the inclination and interests of our fellow-subjects, 
in the colonies? Whatever advantage the United 
States might gain, the colonists must in effect lose. 
In Canada, where there is neither the rich produc- 
tions of the soil of "the southern states, nor the manu- 
factures of the northern, the American tariff would 
be productive of great and irremediable causes of 
national depression. In the mean time, the motives 
would no longer exist, for the commercial advan- 
tages which have hitherto been given to the colonists 


by the mother^country, in the partial exclusion of 
foreigners, for the protection of colonial importa- 
tions. In a word, the present colonies would 
become dependent upon the present northern states 
for supplies for which they could not pay, unless 
through the means of remittances to Great Britain, 
which could not be expected to favour their exports, 
while the northern ports of Europe were open to 
her shipping ; and thus, they must sink into insig* 
nificant members of an overgrown republic, instead 
of remaining, virtually, independent appendages of 
a great state, and enjoying all the advantages of her 
commercial encouragement and protection. 

But, should it be asserted, that the republicans 
might conquer the Canadas, let it be answered ; 
that the repeated defeats of their armies, during the 
last war, which were driven out of the country 
wherever they entered, by the almost unassisted 
e£Ebrts of the provincials themselves, have taught 
them to respect a territory, which could not, even if 
left to the militia alone, be wholly subdued ; and 
were it otherwise, no portion of it could in any case 
be held possession of, in direct contradiction to the 
genius of the United States constitution, and the 
very terms of the federal union. 

Indeed, it is idle to speculate upon the possibility 
of any portion of the British people being seduced 
from their allegiance, or subjected to dependence 
upon a foreign power. The time will arrive, when 
the growth of the American colonies will render it 
desirable or necessary, that their present connection 


with the parent state should undergo some change ; 
but political ties for mutual advantage may still 
continue to afford protection to the Canadas against 
foreign invasion, and secure our commercial inter- 
course from effectual interruption. 

We cannot foresee the period of separation. Great 
Britain exercises no arbitrary control over her co- 
lonies, and cannot be said to retain more than that 
wholesome influence which is essential to their 
welfare — the power of checking such proceedings 
as might, by possibility, give rise to measures which 
would militate against the general interests ; and no 
material changes have been contemplated by any of 
the colonists, except a party among the settlers of 
foreign extraction in Lower Canada. 

It is, or at least was, supposed in this country, 
that the opinions of the French party in Canada, 
which has obtained the ascendant in the legislative 
assembly, expressed the feelings of the whole of the 
colonists of French descent in that province, and con- 
sequently of the majority of the people. It was 
never so. The haMtaTtSy which compose the majority 
of the population of Lower Canada, are too happy to 
be suspicious of political experimentalists. But they 
speak no language but the French, which has given 
an advantage to politicians of the same extraction 
with themselves, which has been successfully em- 
ployed in obtaining a majority of members of their 
party in the house of assembly. But the questions 
which are there debated, and the demands which 
have been made upon the mother«country, for a 

THB emigrant's INTRODUCTION • 229 

change in her colonial institutions, are not matters 
Tfhich the great mass of the people pretend to com- 
prehend or care to influence. The Canadians are at 
this time perhaps the happiest people under the sun ; 
but the changes which have been demanded, would 
introduce principles incompatible with the exist- 
ence of the province as an appendage of this empire, 
and subversive of the independence and happj con- 
dition of the colonists, which are entirely founded 
upon their present relations to the mother-country. 
Neither could Great Britain comply with the de* 
mands of the house of assembly, without disregarding 
the claims, and totally abandoning the interests, of 
every colonist of British descent in both the Canadas, 
and, indeed, in all the American provinces. 

230 THB emigrant's iktroduction. 



'* Oft expectation fails, and most oft there, 
Where most it promites ; and oft it hits 
Where hope is coldest, and despair most sits.'* 

All*s Well that Ends Well. 


First Thoughts of Emigration.^Itsreal Character.— Striking Dispro- 
portion of Married and Un-married Persons at Home.— Causes. 
— -Consequences.^Who should Emigrate.^Means of Settlement. 

After haying, in the preceding chapters, suffici- 
ently dwelt upon those leading features, which 
generally and separately concern the several Ameri- 
can provinces, in order to complete the design of this 
treatise, it is now necessary to proceed to such prac- 
tical observations as may seem most useful in the 
present stage of the emigrant's investigations. For 
this end, after some general remarks, one or two 
important questions will be proposed, to which the 
writer will endeavour to make the most simple and 
suitable answers, that may be hazarded without the 
risk of becoming too tedious, or exceeding the limits 
prescribed to this undertaking. 

Emigration is not, in this age, a wild uncertain 
speculation, but an object of systematic enterprise. 
No El Dorado dreams now entrance the imagina- 


tion, till we awake and find nothing. " The aims 
and ends of burning youth" are no longer directed 
to objects calculated to plunge the enterprising 
adventurer into irrecoverable difficulties. Report, 
which formerly reached Europe but in the fanciful 
fables of the earlier adventurers, has thrown aside 
the mantle which enveloped in mystery every tale 
concerning the new world ; and thousands of our 
countrymen, counselled by prudence, and under the 
guidance of truth, yearly experience the happy 
results of well*directed measures, not undertaken 
without due deliberation. "The disposition of 
the time" is now changed, and investigation and ex - 
perience have proved the colonies to ofier — 

A coarse more promising 
Than a wild dedication of yourselyes 
To anpath'd waters, undream'd shores. 

Yet the first thoughts of emigration, it must be 
confessed, are commonly cold and disheartening; 
but that this arises, in most cases, from the unac- 
countable ignorance which reigns in the mother- 
country, respecting the condition of the colonies, is 
evident, from the frequent unanticipated results of 
the experiment. Emigration is made a last, insteieid 
of a first resource ; and the faintest hope that pro- 
mises better fortunes at home, is caught at, and 
tenaciously clung to. But the enduring Briton 
should remember, that the fertile earth is not yet 
above a third part inhabited ; that millions of acres 
of arable land, the common possession of his countryr 

2S2 TBE emigrant's introduction. 

men, offer the means of ready relief, and even pro* 
mise to reward industry with affluence, and bless 
his condition with as much or more happiness than 
would attend even the success of his efforts, on his 
leased land, or in his hired shop, or in almost any 
pursuit in this country. 

If by happiness, indeed, we mean the enjoyment 
of continual good unalloyed with pain, we must go 
further than Canada to find it. — 

'* The web of oiur life is a mingled yarn, 
Good and ill together." 

But, if that " word of wondrous virtues" be cor- 
rectly defined by those who hold it to signify, that 
condition in which the aggregate of pleasure ex- 
ceeds that of pain, we may perhaps discover its 
" local habitation," or the vanity of our search, by 
inquiring, what are the chief sources of enjoyment 
and of suffering, and what are the prospects of the 
predominance of the one or of the other in these 

Poverty and dependence, we must necessarily 
allow, are fraught with evils, than which, none can 
be greater, at least to a generous mind. Compe- 
tence and independence, we need no '' ghost from 
the grave" to tell us, are indispensible to every 
degree of felicity. In what part of the earth shall 
we find poverty more rare, or whither shall we flee 
in search of a country, where good conduct and 
industry are more certainly rewarded by compe- 

THE emigrant's introouctiok. 233 

tence and ease. These objects being attained, the 
mind seeks to enlarge the sphere of its active ope- 
rations, and body and soul at once engage them- 
selves in pursuits which tend to some desirable and 
attainable end, whiie, at the same time, we have 
leisure and opportunity for the exercise of the social 
and kindly affections ; and, these are assuredly the 
sources of the purest and most perfect delight which 
an intellectuid being can enjoy. 

Many there are in this populous country, who 
follow engagements uncongenial with their feelings, 
or ill-adapted to their capacity and experience. 
These, were they not, in this great metropolis^ 
especially, like the inhabitants of a rock in the 
ocean, ^^ ignorant how features are abroad," would 
no more submit to the drudgery they endure, than 
could the free soul of an Indian to the labours of the 
mine, did they know any othermeans of attaining to 
that state of happiness, the prospect of which, is 
the grand incitive to enterprise in youth, and to 
steady industry in maturer years. 

Any one, who has resided any time in America, 
upon returning into society in any of the populous 
countries of Europe, must be struck with the great 
disproportion between the number of unmarried 
persons of mature age, in the old and in the new 
world. The immediate cause of this, it is not diffi^ 
cult to discover. One man is deterred from the 
matrimonial alliance, because he has no means of 
increasing his income, and he cannot retrench his ' 
Mpences, without sinking, or believing liiimself to 


sink, below the rank of society in which he hoB 
been accustomed to live : another, is restrained by 
the uncertainty of the profits of his profession or 
trade ; and a third, feels too insecure in the tenure 
by which he holds his possessions. 

Every prudent youth, be his business or profession 
what it may, must wait until he has in some degree 
established his independence ; but, there is no &rm 
to cultivate, no opening to set-up in trade ; and the 
professions offer no better prospects, without those 
connections which thousands want. 

But perhaps the most instances of the necessity 
for single life, occur among that numerous class, 
for the most part with the education of gentlemen, 
who till subordinate places, in government or pro- 
fessional oflEices, or counting-houses. The season 
most proper for the growth of the best and most 
lasting affections, is past over before they can 
insure the enjoyment of happiness, or the hope of 
independence, with the partner whom virtuous love 
and mutual attachment have pointed out, as the 
proper object upon whom to set their affections in 
early life, and to depend upon as the best com- 
panion of after-years ; and thus, the society of once 
merry England is now half made up of the morose 
and selfish people of habit, which necessity, not in- 
clination, has engendered. 

If we descend to the ranks in society below those 
above-mentioned, we shall find the same causes pro- 
ducing the same effects, until we reach the lowest 
degree ; and here we shall not find caution and the 

tHfi emigbakt's introduction. 235 


moral restraint exercising the same influence; 
whence arises our excess of popuhition and abun** 
dance of misery. 

Resolve upon any step but emigration, and your 
success will at least be more dependent upon cir- 
cumstances over which you have but little influaice, 
than upon your own disposition and exertions: butp— 
put on '' the dauntless spirit of resolution/' and de« 
termine upon cultivating the soil in one of the colo« 
nies, and '^ labour will refresh itself with hope." 
There, an in4ustrious man may almost control his 
fortunes ; and, if happily of a good constitution, he 
will be likely to enjoy better health in Canada than 
in England ; and, nothing but the deprivation of 
this blessing can prevent his accumulating property, 
and keeping pace with the progress of social im- 
provement, in the community of which he will 
become a member. In short, while the irresolute 
and timid are changing from pursuit to pursuit, 
augmenting nothing but their engagements, and 
every day confirming still more and more their 
irksome or degrading dependence, and perhaps de<* 
moralizing their minds and neglecting their children, 
the resolute and more steady are transferred from 
the lowest depths of degradation to the highest 
pinnacle of earthly prosperity and enjojrmeut. 

But, to illustrate, and at the same time prevent 
the misapplication of what has been so confidently 
advanced, it is necessary to proceed to some more 
definite and practical observations; and, for this 
purpose, let us suppose the following questions tQ 


be the most important that the inquirer could de- 
sire to be answered, and the reply to them will 
nearly complete what this desultory treatise has 
proposed to discuss. ^ 

In the first place, then, — ^Who should emigrate? 
Secondly — ^Who should not emigrate? Thirdly-' — 
To what colony is it most desirable that certain in- 
<liyiduals should direct their steps ? And lastly — 
How should they proceed to carry their intentions 
into execution, and what may be the condition of 
those who advisedly embark in this important under- 

The lot of every speculative adventurer, it would 
be difficult to foretel ; but it may in general terms 
be said, that, with the exception of the downright 
manufacturer of articles, to be very easily exported 
from this country, there is scarcely any one who 
would not find profitable employment, or improve 
his condition, if it should not be prosperous at home, 
by removing to one or other of these colonies* 

No one need be told, that the wild forest-land 
cannot be reduced to a state fit for cultivation, 
without the exercise of laborious efforts and great 
patience ; and, in cases where the emigrant has a 
&mily too young to render him any assistance, he 
will for several years be subject to hardships, and 
his family to privations ; but, the examples of re- 
quited industry will surround him ; and the golden 
promises of hope will be too fully assured, to permit 
him to relax in bis efforts to obtain independence 
and easf . 


Every man, then, with such few exceptions as shall 
be presently particularized, should therefore emi- 
grate, who is retrograding in his circumstances, and 
has little prospect of his children being educated and 
provided for — the agriculturist above all others. 

But should the emigrant, bred to any other 
business, design to follow his former vocation, the 
arts and trades to be considered as the most pro- 
mising, are those of joiners, masons, bricklayers, 
tanners, wheelwrights, blacksmiths, millwrights, 
shoemakers, tailors, saddlers ; and coopers and 
shipwrights in the maritime provinces. Sometimes 
also, as it will be further attempted to show, persons 
of small incomes, especially of the army or navy, 
may greatly benefit their circumstances, and 
enlarge their sphere of enjoyments, by a timely 
removal to the colonies. 

But as nine-tenths of those who emigrate, with 
or without capital, will probably be hereafter en- 
gaged in the pursuit of agriculture, and, as this oc- 
x;upation must be wholly new to great numbers who 
will embark in it, and not quite familiar to even the 
English farmer, on account of the different modes 
of management in the old world and in the new, 
it is proper to speak of the prospects of those who 
design to engage in, and those who have previously 
followed that pursuit, in a more particular manner 
than any other class, beginning with the poorest. 

It is well known, that the value of the labour of 
individuals of this useful class of subjects, at home, 
is scarcely sufficient for their own maintenance. 


although a wife and family may be dependent upon 
their exertions. To such men, and their families; 
the change for the better is great indeed. There is 
no probability of their being out of employment, 
and the rate of wages, at all times, exceeds that 
which can be aflForded in this, or in any other popu- 
lous country ; while, articles of consumption, except 
clothing, are usually to be purchased considerably 
lower ; so that, if a man be industrious and prudent, 
a year or two is in general sufficient to place him in 
possession of a hundred acres of land, upon easy 
terms of payment by instalments, and from the 
period of his entry upon which, he may date his 
absolute independence. 

The recompense of labour, except in and about 
the neighbourhood of large towns, is not always 
paid in money, nor is this considered necessary ; 
more especially, if the emigrant, circumstanced as 
described, should have pitched upon a spot for his 
ultimate residence. In this case, he will rarely 
fail to find some one within its vicinity, anxious to 
hire him and his family together, until they shall, 
among them, have earned enough to commence on 
their own account. They are then partly paid in 
stock, or the most useful articles upon a farm. 

When this plan is followed, the beginning is 
usually made by the emigrant working occasion- 
ally during the term of his service for his own 
benefit. At this time he clears a square of land, 
assisted perhaps in his labour, by the longer 
located settler with whom he is engaged, should 

THE emigrant's xmtroductiok. 239 

that settler also be but in the morning of his inde- 
pendence. But this interchange of senrices is more 
practised in those remote districts where the circula- 
ting medium is in no proportion to the wealth and 
traffic of the settlement, than in the better settled 
parts of the country. 

As soon as there appears to be land enough cleared 
for a first crop of potatoes, which is usually the 
chief article sown the first year ; or before this, in 
those cases where the emigrant has enough capital 
to enable him to begin on his own account, the in- 
habitants of the vicinity assemble and install the 
new settler and his family in the manner before 

Such is the position which the twelve or eighteen 
months located settler of the poorest class may at- 
tain ; and dull and boorish must he be, who can 
endure the sight of his children in want, with the 
prospect of no other relief than that which he may 
receive through the parish-officers in England, 
when such might be his condition in the colonies, 
among his fellow-subjects, under the same laws 
and the same protection as at home, himself inde- 
pendent, and his children with a certainty of be- 
coming affluent members of a religious and moral 
community, no way inferior to that, which, by the 
happiest chances, they could have become members 
of in their native country. 

In Canada, as well as in the lower provinces, 
frequent opportunities occur, of experienced persons 
with slender means, or wholly without capital, being 

240 THE emigrant's INTRODUCTIOK. 

able, upon their arriyal, to setdownuponacleared and 
readj-stocked farm. This more commonly happens 
where old settlers have other occupations, perhaps 
within the town near which their estates may be 
situated, or, in cases where farms belong to widows 
or minors and might not be sold to advantage, or 
sometimes upon the clearances of those who prefer 
the labour of converting the wilderness into a fruitful 
field, their natural occupation, to attempting to 
compete with the skill of the English farmer in the 
management of arable land, and yet, do not wish 
to dispose of their possessions. 

In either of these cases, a man with a family is 
preferred. The tenant provides labour, and there- 
fore, the larger his family, unless the members of it 
are very young, the better ; for, if any addition to 
their strength be found necessary, labourers must 
be hired. These, however, may be had. Young 
persons, for this species of labour, are generally 
engaged at board wages, and are settled with upon 
the return of the crops. In lieu of rent, it is stipu- 
lated between landlord and tenant, that the produce 
of the land shall be equally divided ; so that, no 
risk is run by either party if the fanner be worthy 
of his trust, except that which the variation of the 
seasons may occasion to both. 

This method is called, taking a farm upon the 
halves. All who hope to reap any advantage from 
it, will do well to carry with them a certificate of 
character from any gentleman in the neighbourhood 
in which they have lived, who may chance to possess 


the most kQOwle(%e of them. This is, indeed, a 
precautioBy which will at all times smooth the 
poorer emigrant's path, and greatly tend to remove 
those difficulties, which must more or less lie in the 
way of every stranger, upon entering upon any 
undertaking, in the midst of a society in which he 
may hope to play his part, in a station superior to 
that which it has been hitherto his lot to fill at home. 
The next that should be mentioned, are per- 
sons of small property, or such as may be sup- 
posed to possess from £50 to £100. Sometimes, 
even these, bat at all times, those who possess less 
than £60, will find it advantageous to follow the 
course which is commonly adopted by the class of ^ 
settlers above mentioned. This will give them time 
to look about, and deliberately decide. Such is the 
&cility of settlement, that £100 is always considered 
ample to enter at once upon a fair beginning, where 
the emigrant is not undecided in his choice, by ob- 
taining the hired assistance of persons of the poorer 
classes. In many cases it will enable the settler to 
purchase a farm, with a warm log-house upon it, 
and two or three acres of land ready cleared. 

Indeed it may be said, that the majority of those 
who carry out £100, will be as comfortably situated 
upon their own land in four or five years, as the 
lessee agriculturist in England, who is employing 
from six hundred to a thousand pounds capital. But 
if we take into account, that every tree cut down, 
redeems a portion of the wilderness, and makes 
a substantial addition to the value of the land, and 

242 THB bmigrant's introduotiok. 

the capital of the coloniat, where shall we seek for 
a parallel case, among the farmers in Britain? 

Bat, says the man of more substance, if ease and 
comfort be so easily obtained with so small a capi- 
tal, where shall I find my advantage, in entering die 
same woods, with the same obstacles to overcome, 
and in a country where wages are high ? 

If your capital be indeed large ; if it consist of 
thousands rather than hundreds, the most profitable 
uses, to which you can apply it, will be in the pur* 
chase of wild land, upon a large scale ; and the dis- 
posal of this, improved or unimproved, in allotments 
of from one hundred to two hundred acres. By 
prudent purchases, and liberal management, capital 
may in this way be doubled or trebled in the course 
of a few years. 

The plan which usually is, and ought to be fol- 
lowed, by the somewhat smaller capitalist, is, to 
purchase a farm with a better house, and with from 
thirty to fifty acres of the land cleared and under cul- 
ture, which can generally be obtained for, from £200 
to £300, according to the value of the buildings. 
This he may stock, clear, and improve, according 
to his means. 

Fanns are to be had in almost all the settlements, 
in every stage of improvement, owing to a custom, 
which prevails throughout, of what is termed by the 
old settlers, ^^ selling improvements." Having 
worked eight or ten, or more years, some 
retire again to the forest, with the proceeds of th«r 
labour ; which, from their superior skill in felling 


the trees, and other necessary first undertakings, 
and their inferior knowledge of the improved 
methods of husbandry, introduced by the English 
fanners, finds a better account in clearing 
away the forest, than in cultiyating arable land. 
Thus the new settler obtains a &rm, which will yield 
him an earlier return, and which is in every respect 
more congenial with his acquired habits, the change 
of which is, perhaps, the most difficult matter to 
accommodate, and the greatest inconvenience which 
men of smaller means will experience. 

Farms of this description are peculiarly well* 
adapted to a class of persons, which, next to the 
farmers, have, in proportion to their numbers in 
Britain, lately become the most numerous among 
the emigrants. These are, persons of small inde- 
pendent incomes, many of them officers of the army 
or navy. No setders have succeeded better, even 
in the virgin forest. It is more advisable, however, 
for them to purchase land, improved and brought 
under cultivation by experienced woodsmen. 

It is upon this class of colonists, that the rural 
occupations have shed their most cheering influence ; 
and it is in their condition, next to that of the emi- 
grant of the poorest class, that the most remarkable 
change is in the highest degree apparent. Persons 
of small incomes, and no business, at home, must 
be continually beset with apprehensions for the 
future ; and every increase of family must circum- 
scribe their means of comfort, and render it so much 
more difficult to keep that station in society to which 

M 2 

244 THE emigeant's introduction. 

birth or merit has entitled them. What revolution 
in the economy of life, ** what cup of alteration" 
among Fortune's divers liquors, can be compared with 
the change from the inactive and restless condition 
of persons thus circumstanced, and of whom there are 
numbers, to an active and healthy occupation, with 
plenty, peace, contentment, and the prospect of even 
affluence ? Or what can more flatter the best feelings 
of nature, or more readily bring into exercise the 
noblest virtues, than the opportunities of a cultivated 
understanding, putting into practice the high prin- 
ciples, which want of influence in passing transac- 
tions, forbids to many, who possess them but to 
perish unobserved ? And are there not thousands, 
whom nature seems to have designed to form pillars 
of support to the social edifice, or to contribute to 
the formation of the character and manners of future 
generations, who, "omitting the sweet benefit of 
time," wither in obscurity in a- populous country, 
though they might, did they emigrate, become or- 
naments to society among a rising and happy people ? 
Who is there, knowingly so circumstanced, that is 
not ready to exclaim, — 

'^ I am asham'd 
To look upon the holy sun, 

To have the benefit of his bless'd beams remainisg^ 
So long a poor unknown/' 

A question is sometimes asked by persons of this 
class who contemplate emigrating, concerning the 
refinements of society in the new settlements. Must 

THE emigrant's imtroductiok. 246 

they not bid farewell to every comfort, and content 
themselves for ever afterwards with rade accommo- 
dationsand coarse fare? — Will they not have, as they 
emphatically express themselves, '' to rough it/' all 
the remainder of their days ? 

If, by refinement, yoa mean such a scrupulous 
adherence .to the niceties of formal society, as would 
prevent you from setting down to table, a contented 
guest or host, without all the superfluities which 
weary the mind, and satiate the senses, rather than 
contribute to the enjoyments of the rich, in the old 
country ; or, if refinement, in your sense of that 
term, forbid you to take a meal, upon any occasion, 
under the canopy of heaven, or beneath the luxuriant 
foliage of the noble and towering trees of the forest, 
you will find but little of it in the American woods. 
Yet the comforts and useful formalities of society are 
not wanting, or undervalued ; nor is it necessary to 
seek the desert, or court the freedom of the savage, 
to make even the most remote settlements in Canada 
yonr home ; though the chace and the sports of the 
forest will there probably supersede some of the 
city amusements which you have been hith^to 
accustomed to enjoy. 

Naval and military men, those especially whose 
wives have been in the camp or the fortress, or 
upon the sea, make excellent settlers; and the 
system of granting them lands, or allowing them a 
remission of the purchase-money,''^ and encouraging 

* See Appendix. 

246 THE emigrant's INTBODUCTIOir. 

them to locate, has been attended with macli indi- 
vidnal relief, and has contributed, in no inconsider- 
able degree, to the preservation of British national 
feelings and pride among the settlers, as wril as to 
the security and prosperity of the provinces. 

A capitalist may, as suggested aboye, be at first 
alarmed at the high rate of wages ; but, although 
labour is always, in the colonies, above what we 
are accustomed to pay in England, it must be re- 
membered, that its value is also greater. 

Upon comparing the prices of wheat and other 
articles of agricultural produce in the colonies, 
with what they commonly sell at in the markets at 
home, the prices in the colonies will appear to the 
English farmer as very inadequate, and not likely, 
considering the difference in the price of labour, to 
repay the ezpences of its cultivation ; but when llie 
low price or triJUng rent oflandy the exemption from 
tithes J taxesy and poor-rates^ be taken into account, 
with some other considerations, we shall not be sur- 
prised at the lower price producing greater profits 
in America, than the higher in Great Britain. 

Except in some of the larger towns, there can 
scarcely be said to be a class of persons exclusively 
considered as day-labourers, although there are 
some, as in all countries, whose thoughts never 
soared above the most servile occupations. But, it 
is in general better to hire monthly or yearly assis- 
tants ; for there is no season in which every hand 
that has been employed during the most busy, may 
not be profitably occupied. 


To the tradesmaa and artizan in general, the 
change, £rom the mother-country to the colonies, is 
almost nominal in such matters as concern their 
bHsinessaffiurs or their comforts ; it would therefore 
be needless to say more, than that such as are above- 
enumerated are those which usually succeed best, 
and that such as find their prospects bad at home, 
may be sure, that if they should not succeed in their 
own line in America, they will have a resource in the 
cultivation of the land, which they cannot hope for 

The reader must now be requested to recall to 
mind, the practical instances of success which were 
given in a preceding chapter. Their application is 
not particular, but general, and Canada is not less 
fertile than when those fiunilies adopted its soil, 
while the improvement of the country has aug- 
mented, many-fold, the opportunities of the ad- 
vantageous employment of capital. 

A farmer at this time, possesinng the means of doing 
justice to a second-rate tenancy in Britain, may be 
&irly said to have it in his power to ascertain his posi- 
tion, and coolly balance his condition at home, with 
that of his equals in America; and, without the enthu- 
siasm of extreme youth, or the motive of great 
necessity, at one time thought indispensable, de- 
liberately determine his own fate. Having well 
weighed the matter, he will certainly come to this 
conclusion ; that, without the painful struggles and 
laborious occupations of the first years of the settler 
unaccustomed to labour, and wanting capital, he 

248 THB BMta&AKT's in^tt&imia^ias. 

may at onoe estaUi^ bis independenee, and found 
the Aitnre fortui^s of his family. Erery days' 
performance will render his possession more ralu- 
able, and each year, as it passes, will attach him 
more strongly to the estate of his own creiuion ; 
while a thousand new feelings will open npon him, 
which his contracted hopes and parsnits never per** 
mitted him to experience before, and it is hardly 
possible that he should eyen regret his great change* 

The experience of the tradesman or mechanic, 
who engages in the novel undertaking of cultivating 
the soil, will differ widely from tiiat of the fiirmer. 
His due estimation of his proud position, and the 
enjoyment of the fruits of his labour, will not so 
soon take possession of his mind ; but that natural, 
healthy, and cbeerful occupation, will evcMtually 
engage all his interest ; and many seasons will not 
elapse, before the hopes of the spring and the abun- 
dance of autumn, will bind him as firmly to his 
grateful fields, as his coeval in settlement, not pre- 
viously a stranger to the economy of husbandry, and 
the bountiful returns of the soil. So great, indeed, 
is the concern which is commonly taken, by the 
poorer classes of settlers especially, in the work of 
their own haiids, that it is more frequently necessary 
to check the ardour and active efforts of the young, 
than to incite to industry, by preaching against sloth 
and inactivity. 

Let the citizen reader, of all others, be his 
property what it may, compare the tenure of his 
temporary street-dwelling, (for not one in ten 

THB . bmxoiukt's imtboductiox. 249 

thousand seem to have ever had a home) with the 
secure and absolute possession of a real and im- 
proving estate, from the produce of which, all his 
comforts as well as profits may be derived. The 
greater enjoyment which must attend the latter, 
cannot have a stronger proof than that afforded in 
the desire which is manifested by almost every 
tradesman who settles in Canada, of purchasing 
land and improving it, even though his affairs 
should be so prosperous as to still tie him to his 
former pursuits. You may every day see examples 
of this in all the great towns in the colonies ; but, it 
is not the best policy to adopt, unless the placing of 
children and their advancement be the object of it. 

M 5 

260 TBB BineBAHT's iMTBOznrcTunr. 


Who should not emigrate.^NecesBity for full Information.— 
CoBditi<m (^ those who return. 

Therb are yet persons of other classes besides those 
ivhich have been enumerated in the last chapter, 
who, from varioas motives, turn their thoughts to- 
wards the colonies. Many of these ought to be 
discouraged from emigrating. But it will be snffi« 
cient to notice the prospects of those of the four 
principal professions or orders, among which false 
expectations are most apt to arise. 

The young merchant, for the writer does not 
deem himself competent to advise, nor does he anti- 
cipate the removal of any other, if possessed of some 
capital and great industry, will find considerable 
scope for business at Quebec, Montreal, or Hali£u. 
All such adventurers should speedily identify them- 
selves with the country and people, and not look 
forward to amassing such riches as may enable them 
to return in affluence to their own country. This 
not unfrequently however happens, especially with 
the merchants of Lower Canada, where there is, at 
present, the broadest field for commercial specula- 
tion. The difficulty of amalgamating with a people 
of foreign origin has been found great, and has 


induced many to leave the country, when their ex- 
perience and their capital would have tended most 
to benefit it. 

To gentlemen of the legal profession, the prospect 
is not very flattering. The young men of the 
country, after a term of service, are admitted to 
practise as solicitors and barristers ; and in Lower 
Canada, which would otherwise offer the best pros- 
pects at present, a perfect knowledge of the French 
language, and of the Roman law, which still obtains in 
the most important branches of jurisprudence, in that 
province, is indispensable. Talent and industry have 
been, however, and still maybe, well recompenced in 
Halifax or Toronto, or even in some places of less 
importance ; but, emigrstnts of either of the liberal 
professions, especially with families, should take 
care, if possible, to secure a profitable connection, 
before they venture to Abandon that which they may 
Iiave formed at home. 

It is not uncommon for professional men, as welL. 
as the votaries of commerce, to possess iarms near 
the neighbourhood of towns, and to unite the rural 
pursuits with their more important engagements. 
Some there are, who having realized sufficient, 
have very comfortably retired to their farms, while 
their a&ira are mainly conducted by the younger 
branches of the firm . 

To the medical practitioner, the prospect is not 
muchmoreencouragingthantothelawyer. Through- 
out the provinces, there are no endemic diseases, ex- 
cept the ague befon^-iiientioned in some parts of 

252 THS bmigbavt'b iKTBomiaciaK. 

Upper Canada. All the maladies peealiar to a 
crowded population must necessarily be ivanting ; 
and, if we take into account, the salubrious and 
bracing air of the climate, we shall not wonder at 
the absence of many diseases which commit great 
ravages in Europe. The profession, however, is not 
overcharged by the admission of the numerous 
young men of the country, as with the law. The 
greater proportion of the faculty, at least in the 
towns, are emigrants, and, in many cases, old 
settlers ; and they cannot be said to make an in* 
different living. 

Religion does not offer such flattering prospects to 
any of its teachers, as should induce them to ad- 
venture in the colonies upon the speculation of find- 
ing a congregation ready to receive them on their ar- 
rival. Notwithstanding, there is no superabundance 
of pastors of any persuasion; and there are many 
settlements, particularly in Upper Canada, where 
clergymen of the established church, entertaining 
tolerant opinions, might provide for themselves and 
spread much good. 

The clergy of the church are usually appointed, 
by either the bishop of Canada or of Nova Scotia, 
from among the young men brought up at the 
colleges in the country ; or they are sent out from 
England, by the '^ Society for the Promulgation of 
Christian Knowledge in Foreign Parts." The 
ministers of the kirk are commonly sent from Scot- 
land, as congregations are formed to receive them ; 
and much the same plans are adopted by die metho- 


dists and antiburgbenr, and the several less prevalent 

It has been elsewhere observed, that the colonists 
are a moral people ; they are also very attentive io 
the duties of religion, according to the rites and 
cnstoms of their various institutions. But what is 
still more pleasing to observe : those uncharitable 
opinions and actions, and those prejudices, some- 
times so deeply rooted and shamelessly indulged in, 
by one sect towards another, in England, though 
not wholly conquered, are much softened among 
the colonists. Very frequently, the most perfect 
harmony, with mutual respect and good feeling, 
subsists betweed sects the most adverse in their 
speculative opinions ; while no hatred or iU-will is 
borne by any, except a few fanatics, towards their 
brethren of any denomination of professing chris- 
tians, who take the bible for the guide of their 

practice and the foundation of their faith. 

Instances very opposite to this general good feel- 
ing have sometimes occurred ; but they have usually 
originated or been fermented by those who, whether 
priests or laymen, have not been any length of time 
in America. 

The smallness of the congregations, and the neces- 
sity for mutual intercourse and reciprocal support, 
may have contributed to produce this happy effect ; 
but, from whatever cause it proceeds, we may be 
sure that no state of a christian community, can 
exist, which is more conducive to individual or col- 
lective happiness, than that which it generally obtains 
in our American colonies. Where the state of 

264 THB bmiobavt's inteodugtiok. 

iociety 18 happj, and the oonditioB of the people 
prosperous, the minds of men do BOt rest upon 
those gloomy forebodii^ of fiitarity, which arise 
from dwelling too much upon those passages of 
scripture, which paint the anger, rather than the 
mercy and beneficence of the great author of the 
universe, but religion shows itself in gratitude and 
derout adoration, and cheerfulness reigns, instead 
of apprehension and fear. 

In Lower Canada, where the catholic religion 
prevails, that church perhaps exists, in as pure and 
primitive a state, as in any part of the world. The 
priesthood, quite unconnected with politics, unless 
a general good feeling towards the government to 
which they owe the free exercise of their religion, 
be so deemed, instil into the minds of the people, 
over whom, with few exceptions, they possess great 
influence, no hatred of other sects, but a becoming 
love and charity to all mankind. 

After these observations, the opportunity should 
not be omitted, of endeavouring to impress, as 
strongly as possible, upon the mind of every indivi- 
dual, of every station or profession, who contem- 
plates emigrating, the imprudence of embarking for 
the colonies, before obtaining the most ample infor- 
mation from the purest sources ; or of embarking 
at all, without a full determinalion to remain. 

Some, of unsettled dispositions, occasionally re- 
turn; but, in the majority of cases, they have been 
compelled to revisit the colonies under disadvan- 
ti^es, and submit from necessity to what ought to 


haye been choice ; and this has not rendered them 
more contented. 

When a man would emigrate, let him well con- 
sider what manner of person he is, what is the 
direct object he has in view, and npon what foundfr* 
tion he has built his expectations. It may be, that 
discontent, without reason, has found an asylum 
within his bosom ; and that, grown morose and ill- 
tempered by what he may call his blasted hopes, in 
reality but the consequences of unjustifiable specu- 
lation, he is led to embrace any means of relief that 
first offers. For such a man, there is no repose : 
the colonies offer him no better prospects than the 
country he abandons,-— 

'' Beturn he oonsot, bkxt 

** Contmue where he is; to shift his beings 

** Is to exchange one misery for another." 

Yet, with men of &ir disappointments, possessing 
firmness, steadiness, activity and enterprize, these 
rising countries have in numerous instances allevi- 
ated distress, and changed a life of restlessness and 
anxiety, into one of ease and prosperity. Persons of 
this turn of mind and experience, who " have 
known the city usuries, and felt them knowingly** 
are, perhaps, better adapted to the colonies, (not 
being far advanced in life) than any other. If their 
progress be not rapid, it will at least be steady and 
certain ; and in time they will obtain all the neces- 
saries, as well as the luxuries, in the true sense 
of that word, which their native country affords. 


In the mean time, the good man's children, once an 
object of such anxious solicitude, become immediate 
assistants, more especially to agriculturists, and 
prospectively, objects of no other interest than that 
which nature for wise ends designed. Eyery child 
is a treasure, whidi increasea with its years, until 
united in marriage and established, which usually 
happens at a much earlier period than would be at 
present consistent with prudence at home. 

The proportion of emigrants who have returned 
has, it is true, been very small, but their condition 
has, in many cases, been too lamentable to leave 
unnoticed. Among the labouring husbandmen, and 
the operative artizans, the instances are too rare to 
need observation; but examples occur more fre- 
quently among the i^riculturists of small capital, and 
tradesmen, who have unwittingly embraced some 
extravagant theory, and precipitately embarked, 
without affording themselves time to fairly investi* 
gate the nature of the change, and the reasonable- 
ness of their expectations. Some of these have been 
just as easily diverted from steadily following their 
new career, as they were from their original pur- 
suits ; but the condition of the most reluctant exile 
is not more unfortunate. But, in proportion to the 
length of time that these thoughtless, or misguided 
emigrants have sojourned in the new world, has 
probably been, in most cases, their distaste for their 
former occupations, and station in the old. 

In order to impress upon the reader the necessity 
for his exercising his judgment, it may not be un- 


profitaUe to exemplify what has been aaid, a little 
more strikingly ; and for this purpose, we may eon- 
ceive a faint picture of the condition of some of those 
who return, not only of the classes above alluded to, 
but also of several others. 

The most worthy of notice, is the intelligent 
agriculturist of small capital. After a year or two's 
residence in America, he has become the proprietor 
of a pretty little estate, and is an important person 
in the community of which he is a member. He is 
among the patrons of schools, a trustee of church 
funds, or an active supporter of some religious es- 
tablishment, and a member, perhaps an honorary 
official, of an agricultural society. Thus linked as 
it were to the very soil, he becomes acquainted with 
feelings, to which he was before a stranger, and his 
mind is wrapt-up in the most natural and most pleas- 
ing of all anticipations, — the progress of the im- 
provement of institutions, in part owing their exist- 
ence to his own zeal and exertions, — ^and so power- 
ful is this passion, that it might not be absurd to 
compart it with that love of offspring, by which 
nature has assured the transmission of the improve- 
ments and discoveries of men in one generation, to 
their descendants in another. 

The farmer, with a mind thus diverted from the 
pursuits and ordinary course of affairs among his 
fellows at home, revisits his native village, and finds 
all proceeding in the same steady way as when <he 
left it. The occupant of his temporary property, 
involved in anxiety about his rent, and his children's 


education neglected ; and as to sucli institntione, as 
those in which the colonist has lately taken so mnch 
interest, he has scarcely a clear idea concerning 
them : much less has he dreamt of honors and dis- 
tinctions, such as those which the settler has borne 
in the colonies. 

It may belong to philosophy to determine, whether 
he who has been always engaged in active pursuits, 
in the wider sphere, or he who never ranged be* 
yond the precincts of his birth-place, or entertained 
thoughts superior to the mechanical employments 
of habit, would be the happier under his native 
roof« engaged in his accustomed occupations ; but it 
requires but ordinary sense to discover, that the 
, mind once expanded by more liberal pursuits, can- 
not again confine itself within its former narrow 
bounds ; nor can the colonist prosper, where the 
practical application of newly-acquired principles 
would be impossible, or productive of no useful 
purposes whatsoever. 

If this conception concerning the relative situation 
of the English farmer and the colonist should be 
just, it shows at least the necessity of great caution, 
lest emigration should in individual cases be pro- 
ductive of evil instead of good. If the farmer, 
beyond the age of enterprise, does not find great 
difficulty in providing for his family, he had better 
endure a little, than risk much. At the same time, 
the youth who pants to exercise his genius, and 
enlarge the sphere of his exertions beyond what 
hid prospects warrant his attempting at home, can- 


not &il of finding, in the American colonies, the 
fairest opportnnities of gratifying his generous 
wishes ; hut he must not dream of returning, to ap- 
ply his acquired knowledge to any profitable uses 
in this country. 

The enterprising artizan less frequently returns ; 
but whenever this imprudent step has been taken, 
the example affords an argument, and a warning to 
every such member of society, against forming a 
determination to emigrate, without the most matured 
deliberation. If you have friends to leave behind, 
most of them, with your connection, will, at least 
after long absence, be lost to you. The employment 
which yielded you but a scanty living before, will 
now be beyond your recovery; and your re-ap- 
pearance, instead of being welcomed, as you may 
have fondly hoped, vnll be looked upon with little 
concern, by those whose interests may not be 
affected, and with jealousy, by those who fill the 
place you once occupied. It is then, that you will 
remember, with regret, the circle of your friends 
abroad, and the independence, and fair chances of 
accumulating a good property, which you have unad- 
visedly abandoned. To counterbalance your losses 
however, should you again depart, this advantage may 
ultimatelyarisefrom your visitto your native country ; 
that, when you regreet your colonial friends, it will 
be to identify yourself, in a more especial manner, 
with the colonists ; and thus, your late experience 
will wed you, the more strongly, to the manners of 
the country, and the customs of colonial society. 

260 THE bmigramt's iktsoditction. 

But what shall be Faid, of the retam of another 
description of settler, though the case is happily 
of very infrequent occurrence. 

For the last twenty years, speculations have, in 
occasional instances, led young men, the members 
of large &milies, to tempt fortune, with a hope that 
the fickle goddess would be more propitious in the 
new, than in the old world. Brought up to one of the 
liberal professions, or, in the service of the king, so 
wearying at times of peace, or perhaps, early experi- 
enced in the good and evils of uncertain commerce, 
they have fled to the woods, as a refuge from the 
gloomy prospect of passing a life of wearisome inac- 
tivity, and there flourished, and become the beacon 
and guide of many destinies. None will feel the 
change so keenly as these, should they retrace their 
steps, and imprudently abandon the creation of their 
own hands. The mind is not an aerial bubble, that 
it should expand or contract at the instance of for- 
tune or caprice, nor can its powers be accommodated, 
to every necessity whatsoever, 

'' I hardly yet haye learned 
To iiuinuate, flatter, bow, and bend the knee ; 
Give Borrow leave awhile, to tutor me 
To this submission.*' 

And he who descends the hill of his native valley, 
full of expectation, that the eclat of his reception 
will be in proportion to the regrets which followed 
his departure, will be egregiously disappointed, and 
the condition of no English gentleman may be more 
deplorable. The first in his own settlement, an im* 


portant persoBSge at the court of the representatiye 
of majesty, he starts at the discovery, that among 
his former friends he has fallen, rather than risen, 
in estimation. His frank colonial manner will be 
mistaken for an attribute, '' too terrible for the ear ;" 
nay, his change of manners will be regretted by 
those whom he most pities, that fortune should have 
limited their experience, and depressed their under- 
standings, by proscribing them from passing the 
narrow confines, to which their insular staticm has 
condemned them. 

In truth, after having occupied a more important 
place in society than your English friends, as will 
be the case with most of those who emigrate, you will 
not be fit to act your part, nor will you feel contented, 
in any station you may be called upon to fill on this 
side of the sea. The ruling passion of a colonist is the 
love of improvement, and this feeling, which per- 
vades every thing there, will be ungratified here, 
and perhaps never conquered. Nothing will satisfy 
or please you, that is not progressive ; and this state 
of things, in the sense in which the term is here 
used, you cannot experience in Britain, or in any 
other country in the old world. You will tread the 
ground like an alien in your native town, unnoticed 
and unknown ; familiar with nothing but the inani- 
mate objects which cannot congratulate your return; 
but it will not be, imtil rumour has trumpeted forth, 
whether justly or unjustly, the failure and total 
abandonment of your hopes abroad, that you will 
experience the not easily mistaken signal of depart- 


ing respect, or effected contempt, from your superi* 
ors in perhaps nothing but pride, — the presentation 
of the left hand, in return for your characteristic and 
hearty shake with the right. Then you will at least 
be convinced, that you should never have departed, 
or never returned. 

For these reasons, should persons of every class, 
this last more especially, ponder well upon the 
possible result, before they take the often irretriev- 
able step of emigration. There is no one exempt 
from the prospect of this oblivion : nay, none will 
return without the certainty of experiencing it, 
except the merchant, who should come back in a 
condition to buy men's good opinions, than which 
nothing is more easy to do, with gold. 



Which Colony should be chosen.— Their comparative Adyantages 
according to the SmigranfB Views. 

A difficnlty often arises with indiTiduals who are 
convinoed of the utility or necessity of removal, and 
confirmed in thdir intention to emigrate to one of 
the American colonies, as to what part of these 
extensive countries they may direct their steps, with 
the best prospects of success. 

A few general observations on this head, will per- 
haps serve to put the reader in possession of as 
much information as he may require in the present 
stage of his inquiries. 

To such gentlemen of the liberal profession, or 
commercial men of some capital, as propose to 
follow their former occupation, it may be observed : 
that the larger towns and most populous districts 
only, at present afford the opportunity of attainii^ 
to any eminence, either in the gratification of the 
successful cultivation of talent in the former case, 
or the accumulation of the fruits of industry in the 

For the professions of law and divinity. Lower 
Canada, on account of the prevalence of the ancient 
religion and a foreign language, is not so desirable 


as the other provinces. For the higher branches of 
commerce^ the foar great marts of Qaebec, Mon- 
treal, Halifax, and St. John's, in New Brunswick, 
offer the fiedrest fields for enterprise; but, to the 
smaller capitalist, Miramichi in New Brunswick, 
Pictou in Noya Scotia, Arichat and Sidney in 
Cape Breton, and Charlotte Town in Prince Ed- 
ward Island, offer also encouraging prospects. 

But the more numerous body of emigrants, which 
iare those whose views are turned to agriculture, 
may be chiefly recommended to direct their in- 
quiries towards those portions of the country of 
which the climate and soil have been herein repre- 
sented as most favourable; such as the western 
section of Upper, and the St. Francis district in 
Lower Canada, the rich intervales and interior 
country in New Brunswick, and the less spacious, 
but not less fertile tracts in Nova Scotia, and to the 
Island of Prince Edward. 

These are the portions of the British Provinces 
which claim their highest consideration ; but, as 
these several sections of the country are wide apart, 
and essentially differ from each other, it may be 
useful to compare their relative advantages, in those 
• points of interest in which their similarity or dissi- 
milarity is most striking. This may somewhat 
further assist the inquiry, concerning the particular 
adaptation of the proposed means of relief, to the 
temper and expectations of the several descrip- 
tions of persons which have been recommended to 

THE emigbant's xntboduotion. 265 

The four questions which suggest themselves, as 
of XDLOSt importance to the agriculturist, concern 
the climate, as respects its influence on production — 
the fertilizing qualities of the soil — the price of land 
— and the stale of the markets for the produce of 
the ground. 

The season of winter is shorter and less severe, 
and the weather unquestionably more steady, in 
Upper Canada, than in the frontier provinces. The 
vicinity of these latter countries to the ocean 
renders them more exposed to the influence of the 
east winds, which during the winter months bring 
rain or snow, according as they are north and south 
or due-east. Sometimes they cause a thaw for 
several days, which lays the ground bare of its 
winter covering ; but this, as before shown, is not 
favourable to vegetation. Thus, while the meaa 
temperature about Ontario is higher than in those 
districts which lie upon the Atlantic, the oscillations 
of the thermometer do not show changes equal to 
either of those extremes which are sometimes expe- 
rienced, in the depth of winter, in New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia. The districts upon Lake Erie 
are still milder than those upon Ontario. 

The chief advantage which the Upper Canadian 
agriculturists possess over those of the eastern 
provinces, on account of this dissimilarity, consists 
in the successful cultivation of the autumn wheat ; 
whereas, within those districts upon the ocean, 
except in such sheltered places as encourage a great 
accumulation of snow, and do not lie open to the 

266 THE emigrant's introduction. 

south and east winds which cause the great thaws, 
the winter crops are so precarious, or the skill of 
the farmer yet so deficient, that they are seldom 
risked. The exposure of the land to the sharp frosts 
of winter never fails to destroy the crops, though 
this disadvanti^e may possibly be overcome, as the 
theories of the British agriculturist are adapted to 
the practice most suitable to the American climate. 

The district of St. Francis, or the country of 
eastern townships, lies between these extremes of 
inland and sea-coast, and partakes of the climate 
of each ; that is, is neither, upon the average, so 
cold as the country below it, nor so warm as the 
ivestern section of the Upper Province. At the 
same time, the atmosphere in this part of Lower 
Canada, owing to the distance from the ocean, as 
well as from the great inland seas, is perhaps less 
variable in temperature, and drier ai^d more salubri- 
ous, than in any other portion of the provinces. 

As you descend the St. Liatwrence, after passing 
Montreal, the climate becomes gradually colder and 
more variable ; and the change of temperature is sen- 
sibly experienced within distances, for so great a dif- 
ference, incredibly short ; but that extreme variable* 
ness more fully spoken of in a previous chapter, is 
not apparent until you approach the coast of the pro- 
vince of New Brunswick, which lies south of the great 
river. The extremes of heat and cold, in summer 
and winter, are here similar to what is experienced, 
in those districts of Lower Canada which lie in the 
same parallel of latitude ; but the weather is, in 
every season, more variable. 


The winter wheat does not in general succeed, and 
seyeral of the fruits and vegetables, which attain 
perfection in the upper countries, are not cultivated 
with advantage in New Brunswick. 

The same causes are productive of similar effects 
in Pritkce Edward Island. 

The soil of the western district of Upper Canada 
is equal in fecundity to that of the finest upland 
throughout the northern parts of the continent of 
America, and surpasses any thing to be found in the 
eastern countries, except upon those intervale lands 
of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia above-men- 
tioned, some of which possess soils of fertilizing 
qualities, more remarkable than those of any lands 
in the same parallel of latitude upon the face of the 

The next in point of fertility are, undoubtedly, 
those townships of St. Francis which have been 
more particularly adverted to; after which, the 
uplands in the interior parts of New Brunswick, 
and the greater part of Prince Edward Island. 

The price of land, when purchased in small 
portions, either in a wilderness state, or with clear- 
ances under indifferent cultivation, is nearly equal 
in all of the jprovinces. To purchase of the govern- 
ment or of one of the land companies, is generally 
preferable to dealing with private individuals, at least 
with such as are not proprietors of large estates : 
their terms are usually more liberal ; and, as there 
are now companies established in three of the four 
sections of the country, which are herein in a more 

N 2 

268 THE emigrant's introduction. 

particular manner pointed out as the most promising, 
there is, in this respect^but little choice between them. 
Prince Edward Island is the exception. This 
disadvantage would perhaps, however, have been 
counterbalanced, by the active measures of some of 
the larger proprietors of the wild lands, had they 
not been diverted from their intentions by the 
unsettled state of the colony. After the removal of 
the obstructions to the progress of improvement 
before-mentioned, an ill-founded expectation was 
excited, and long kept alive among the uninstrncted 
portion of the settlers, which has been almost as 
injurious to the interests of the country as the 
tyranny or folly of its earlier governors. They were 
taught to believe, that the government might be 
induced to re-invest the lands in the crown, and give 
the tenants free grants of their possessions* This 
absurd belief has, however, lately been dispelled by 
His Majesty's government, and an association, com- 
posed of the principal proprietors, appears to be 
about to take such measures as will afford the same 
facilities for settlement, and the same security to 
property, which are experienced by the settlers in 
the sister provinces ; and all its proceedings will be 
seconded by the colonists, provided its views are 
liberal, and care be taken that its measures are not 

There is nothing more important for the emigrant 
to ascertain, than the present state and pros* 
pects of the markets for produce ; for, upon this, 
does not only individual success in a great measure 

THB emigrant's intboduction. 269 

depend, but indeed the permanent prosperity of all 
the settlements. Attaching so much importance to 
this object, it will admit a word or two more in 
reference to each of the agricultural countries, sepa* 
ratelj considered. 

In Upper Canada, the surplus produce of the 
bread corns is very great, and forms a considerable 
article of export to this country, to Newfoundland, 
and to the West Indies. The farmer sells his pro- 
duce to the country merchant, by whom it is col- 
lected at the several depots, and transferred to 
Montreal, whence it is shipped for the above desti- 
nations. Manufactured articles of almost every 
description, exported from Great Britain, and the 
jjroduce of the We6t Indies, are received in return : 
and these necessaries are usually supplied to the 
settlers in this province at very moderate prices. 

The district of St. Francis is very favourably 
situated for this intercourse, from its vicinity to 
the navigable waters of the St. Lawrence, and from 
the facilities of conveying articles of internal con- 
sumption to the cities of Montreal and Quebec, 
where they meet always a quick sale at remune- 
rating prices. 

The geographical position of New Brunswick 
has, in a peculiar manner, adapted this province for 
the successful prosecution of a valuable commercial 
intercourse with the West Indies, which has ac- 
cordingly for some years been carried on with great 
spirit, and promises to continue, for the mutual ad- 
vantage of the colonists on both sides. There will 

270 THB emigrant's iktroduction. 

probably, ere long, be a considerable export of com 
from this colony to the markets of the United 

Prince Edward Island, on account of its eastern 
position, is conveniently situated for a profitable 
intercourse with Newfoundland, but will hardly be 
able to carry on so successful a trade with the West 
India Islands, as the more favourably situated 
province of New Brunswick. 

Such seems to be the state of those matters of 
peculiar interest to the new settler, in which these 
provinces may be compared with each other : the 
temperature of the atmosphere, and the quality of 
the soil, predominating in favour of the upper 
countries, balanced, by the superiority of position 
for commercial intercourse enjoyed by the lower, in 
the greater &cilities which they afford for carrying 
on such branches of trade, as will at all times create 
demand for their surplus i^ricultural produce. But 
if we regard the influence of climate upon the health 
and constitutions of the inhabitants, and the ad- 
vantages to be derived from the vicinity of the 
fisheries, as contributing to create good internal 
markets for the produce of the land, and as pro* 
ductive of a most useful article of food ; we shall, 
on the first of these accounts, favour those districts 
of the upper country not subject to fevers, as being 
milder and less exposed to the sudden changes and 
great extremes experienced in the lower province ; 
while, on the score of commercial facilities, we 
shall find that the advantages decidedly lie with the 


maritime countries. The St Francis district, in 
the mean time, lies between these extremes of 
climate, and not being above the ship navigation, is 
exempt from the inconveniences, which, on that 
account, attach to the more western districts. 

It is not intended, by selecting the most truly 
agricultural countries for especial notice, to under- 
value the importance of the other provinces, either 
in a national sense, or as holding out less individual 
advantage to settlers to whom soil and climate are 
not of such paramount importance • Lower Canada, 
(except the district of St. Francis) and Nova Scotia 
and Cape Breton, are the portions of our territories 
which offer the least advantages to the agricul- 
turists ; but, they are, at the same time, more con- 
veniently situated for carrying on the most exten- 
sive fisheries, and have large capital engaged in 
this unfailing source of national wealth and indi- 
vidual prosperity. 

This portion of Canada, and those parts of New 
Brunswick which are the least eligible for settle- 
ment, besides these sources of wealth, possess im- 
mense forests of exportable timber. This is per- 
haps, however, a greater advantage to the parent 
state than to the colonies; inasmuch, as the employ- 
ment of her shipping and her nursery for seamen, 
though great considerations at home, are matters 
which but indirectly concern the colonists; and 
the manufacture of this great staple of commerce, 
while it has hardly ever been profitable to those 
engaged in it, is justly considered baneful to the 


interests of society in the colonies. Wherever it 
has been carried on, and as far as its inflaence has 
extended, it has promoted the increase of a dissi- 
pated ansettled population, oyer whom those ad- 
mirable associations for the encouragement of 
temperance, which have wrought so great a change 
in the morals of evciry people among whom they 
have taken root, have had but little or no influence. 

Nova Scotia and the Island of Cape Breton have 
other sources of wealth than their valuable iisheries. 
They possess mines of coal and copper and other 
minerals ; and, also, abundance of gypsum, which is 
annually exported in considerable quantities to the 
United States. For the natives of the coast of 
Ireland, the Highlands of Scotland, and such other 
emigrants as have not been bred up in agricul- 
tural countries, or do not desire to follow the 
rural pursuits, these districts may be said, in many 
respects, to offer superior advantages. The coasts 
of this island, and of the peninsula, abound in the 
best harbours in the world. 

The Island of Newfoundland, although it has 
been lately found to possess great tracts of good 
land in the interior, will not, probably, be much im- 
proved, while such extensive and superior countries 
remain unpeopled in its vicinity. Its present inhabi- 
tants are almost wholly occupied in ibe cod and 
seal fisheries, and the commerce which springs out 
of them, and it has not been common to remain in 
the country after competent fortunes have been made* 



The Manner of Proceeding.— The best Season to Embark.— Plans 
upon which Emigpration is at present Conducted.— Their Ineffi- 
ciency.— Suggestions for the Institution of other Schemes.- Asso- 
ciations.— Whence Information should be sought.- Juyenile 
Emigration.— -Conclusion. 

When sufficient information has been acquired, to 
enable us to judge of what benefit may be expected to 
arise from emigration, and a determination is formed 
to embark for one or other of the colonies, the 
manner of proceeding and the time most proper to 
leave this country, become questions for considera- 
tion ; and as the neglect of taking the most advisable 
measures has sometimes been productive of much 
mischief, it will not be amiss to make one or two 
observations upon the old systems, and those more 
commonly adopted at present. The subject may 
then be closed, by a brief, though somewhat more 
particulraized statement, of the systematic propo- 
sition for the furtherance of more extensive plans 
of emigration, of which some mention has been 
already made. 

While emigration to the colonies was going o^ 
upon a very limited scale, there did not appear 



much necessity for the interference of the govern- 
ment in the management or regulation of the plans 
for the transport of indiridualS) and the emigrant 
was often imposed upon by the artifices of unprin- 
cipled persons engaged in the management of ship- 
ping. Xjh'eat numbers were crowded into vessels of 
small burden, which was not only productive of 
painful sufferings, but of great loss of life. But 
many were yet more effectually deceived, by the 
avaricious misrepresentations of the private, land 
speculators, and other interested persons, who mis- 
directed their enterprise, and created wrong con- 
ceptions at home, and frequent disappointment 
abroad; so that, those who embarked were often 
ill-adapted to the countries where they landed, and 
immediately became dispirited and discontented; 
and little effort was made to improve the land, in a 
countiy which few could be persuaded to consider 
themselves condemned to inhabit for the rest of 
their lives. The British farmer was sometimes 
thrown upon the coast among the fishermen of Nova 
Scotia or New Brunswick ; and the West of England 
and Irish ^sherman, and the mountain Highlander, 
were as often transferred to the agricultural districts, 
with almost equal disadvantage. Some of these 
evils have, however, gradually wrought their own 
cure ; and vessels are now limited in the number of 
passengers they are permitted to carry, in just pro- 
portion to their accommodations; and, by this 
means, the comfort and safety of the emigrant is 
;assured. The better information, also, which has 


Spread through the country, and the appointment of 
government agents throughout the districts,''^ has had 
considerable e£Eect, in directing industry and enter-* 
prise into their more le^timate channels; so that, 
the greater part of those who now embark find their 
expectations realized^ and immediately adopt the 
colony where they arrive, as their future country 
and home. 

But these generally happy results of more prudent 
inquiries, are not without grievous exceptions, 
which the system therein recommended might, per- 
haps, in a great measure tend to remedy. Many 
persons throw . up their occupations at home, in 
recklessness rather than hope, and embark as mere 
speculative adventurers, following the stream of 
fortune whithersoever the first tide may chance to 
carry them. A few of these are found in every 
province, restless and discontented ; but who, not- 
withstanding their unsteady habits, or undefined 
motives, had they been associated with others of 
more firmness of character, and more clearly de* 
fined views, might have become useful members of 
a small society, and, individually, prosperous and 

In the present day, when the colonies are begin- 
ing to be more generally, and better known, several 
plans have been adopted by individual emigrants, 
to insure a right direction of their industry. The 

*See Appendix. 

276 THE emiorakt's introdgction. 

heads of families sometimes ptoceed alone to the 
colonies to make personal observations, before they 
decide upon the site of their futnre abode ; they 
then return in full possession of the most useful inr 
formation, and in more confidence make the necesh 
sary arrangements for the removal of their fieonUies. 
Sometimes young men, even of the poorer classeSy 
precede the rest of the family, hire themselves to 
day or monthly labour, and take an early opportu- 
nity of selecting a spot, and making a commence- 
ment, by cutting down a few acres, and building a 
house, when, in due time, they send for, or fetch 
their parents or nearest connections. 

And notwithstanding what has been said of the sea- 
son of life best suited to emigration ; instances might 
be enumerated, in which even the aged have par- 
taken of the fortunes and improved condition (^the 
younger branches of their families. Many a parent, 
wearied with a long life of toil, has accompanied or 
followed his children to Canada, and past a .tranquil 
old age, on the borders of the woods, in the bosom 
of his prosperous family, cheered by the conscious- 
ness that he is no burden, but rather, a help to their 
efforts in the new world. — ^There is no fable in this 

" He may possess the joys he thinks he sees. 
And lay his old age in the lap of ease." 

And it is common to see parents of sixty years and 
upwards, especially among the later settlers, steadily 

employed in cultivating the gardens of their chil- 

THE ehigbaitt's introductioh. 277 

dren, while these are occupied in the more pressings 
and important engagements of field labour, or in 
clearing their land. And, if this manner of passing 
the evening of life be not preferable to the &te of 
at least the unsuccessful in England, why then it 
must be allowed, there is no longer any argument 
for the boon of emigration. 

There are many instances of young men, who 
landed without any property, earning enough in 
twelyemonths to pay the passages of their families, 
and to settle them comfortably on their arrival. In 
this case, the money is usually lodged in the hands 
of some merchant of respectability, or with the agent 
of one of the land companies, to whose correspon-* 
dent in England, in either case, the friends of the 
parties are directed to apply. The arrangements by 
this means are very easily made, and the meritorious 
individual has the happiness of welcoming his &mily, 
under circumstances which do honor to human 
nature, and are perhaps the most gratifying that 
can be conceived. 

Those who manage their affairs with such circum^ 
spection and caution, perhaps never fail of success ; 
but, as these modes of commencing operations are 
not in the power of all, and as they sometimes cause 
unnecessary delay, a system of more extensive influ- 
ence would be found of greater and more general 

Suppose, that in every town in the United King** 
dom, where there should appear the least inclination 
to emigrate, such individuals as feel themselves 

278 THB emigrant's mTBODUCTIOK. 

chiefly interested, should solicit the assistance of 
persons of influence, to form an emigration associa- 
tion. The gentleman who presided should, if possible, 
be a magistrate. The first step should be, to choose 
a secretary, from among the young men of enter-* 
prise, disposed to try their fortunes in the colonies. 

A committee of respectable persons should then 
be formed from among those who did not themselves 
intend to emigrate. A small fund should be raised, 
and a correspondence opened, between this associa- 
tion, and the several societies in the provinces, as 
well as with the agents of the government, and the 
public companies at home. In short, every informa- 
tion should be elicited, which might tend to direct 
the proceedings of all persons disposed to emigrate. 

Sometimes it might be thought necessary, that one 
or two young men should be sent forward to pre- 
pare the way, or confirm expectation, and procure 
the most minute practical information. This being 
efiected^ or at least the best advice obtained, the 
association should begin to think of more active 
measures ; for which purpose, a special fund should 
be raised from among those members, who, having 
made up their minds to emigrate, would desire to 
partake of the full benefit to be derived from the 
investigations and influence of the association. 

The intending emigrants should now form them- 
selves into parties of from ten to twelve, or even 
twenty or thirty families, while, under the direction 
of the association every arrangement might be made 
which was deemed necessary, or useful, on this side 


the Atlantic. Shipping should be procured at the 
most convenient ports for embarkation, and the 
parties should make their arrangements to debark 
at the nearest port to that district, in either of the 
provinces, where they may have determined upon 

Every such little party should be ready to depart 
by the twentieth of March, and might be expected 
to arrive about the first week in May. This would 
afford sufficient time for individuals, or parties who 
possessed any capital, to get enough woodland 
cleared, for a first crop, at least of potatoes, the same 
year, as elsewhere observed. 

The majority of the members of every such colony 
ought to consist of young married persons; for 
these are, for more reasons than the most obvious, 
unquestionably the best adapted to settle in a new 

One among every party emigrating under such 
an arrangement, ought to be selected to correspond 
with the secretary of the associati<m in England, 
under whose auspices they embarked, while a com- 
mittee of three or five, chosen from among the most 
intelligent of the new settlers, might cause the most 
material transactions to be noted, and the account 
thereof transmitted for the benefit of others inclined 
to follow. 

By such measures as these, a vast saving in time 
and expence would be accomplished, and the great 
evil of risking what country you may inhabit, avoid- 
ed ; but above ally that separation of fellow-country- 

280 tHB smiorant's lyrnoBtiOTioK. 

men, kinsmen, or townsmen, for the comfcMrt of the 
parties, so desirable to avoid, would be prevented^ 
And under this, or any other system^ embracing 
more extensive influence than the present loose and 
uncertain mode of proceeding, in which chance 
governs every thing, towns and villages would 
spring up, with a rapidity incredible, to those who 
have not visited any of the newly-settled districts in 
the United States. 

It is probable that this scheme of emigration may by 
some be thought adapted to establish those who are 
not without the means of judging, and acting for 
themselves ; and yet, not applicable to the condition 
of that class, in the most populous districts of 
Britain, which it is, on every account, their own 
more especially, most desirable should emigrate. 

If it were proposed to disburden the country, at 
once, of every unemployed able-bodied man within 
it, and to provide profitable employment for all 
these at the same time in the colonies, the means, it 
must be confessed, would be inadequate to the pro- 
posed end. The removal of so large a body of the 
poorer class would require funds which no associa- 
tion, formed upon a principle of this kind, could 
raise; nor would all the poorer emigrants find 
enough of their countrymen, during the firist stage of 
the operations of the associations, sufficiently inde- 
pendent to offer them profitable employment until 
the second autumn after their arrival, before which 
time, none should calculate upon making the ground 
productive of the necessaries of life. 

THB emiorant's iktroduction. 281 

But this scheme, it is supposed, would in ike first 
instance dispatch the poor and the independent, in 
just proportions, and in accordance with their mu- 
tual interests and dependence on each other. In 
this case, the demand would annually increase, 
in a greater ratio for settlers of the poorer class, 
than for those who were more independent ; for a 
large proportion of what was mere labour in England 
would be yearly emancipated, and become an increaS'- 
ing source of profitable employment, and of ^- 
couragement for the increase of adventure and enter- 
prise, among that class who would most benefit 
themselves and others by their emigration. 

By such a combination of interests, and pledge of 
mutual support, security would be given for the pre- 
vention of too great a transfer of capital, which could 
not be profitably employed unless accompanied by an 
equal or greater proportion of labour. In the mean 
time, the demand for labour would, in effect, increase 
in proportion to the increase of affluence, or in pro- 
portion to the rapidity with which the dependent 
classes should raise themselves to a higher station in 
society, as has been already shown. 

The sanction, at least, of the government, should 
if possible be obtained, before the formation of every 
association of private adventurers. It would not 
only assure the poorer classes of the genuineness of 
the expectations held out to them, and prevent de* 
ception and fraud, which in some instances might 
otherwise be practised, but it would also greatly 
facilitate such business as must be transacted by. the 
earlier colonists, with the agents either of the 


government, or of the public land companies in the 
colonies ; and it would likewise tend to obviate the 
objection, which might possibly arise from the occa- 
sional scarcity, and conse4uenthigh price of labour. 

If a systematic plan of this kind, indeed, were 
formed by persons of influence in those districts of 
the United Kingdom most burdened with excess of 
population, and carried into effect, fay those who 
were not without some interest in its success, it 
would probably be almost as effectual as arrange- 
ments under the immediate superintendence of the 
government. What might be wanting in funds and 
authority, would be in some degree compensated 
for, by the character of the first settlers, which 
would be such as might greatly tend to facilitate the 
best measures in the colonies, for the establishment 
of any reasonable number of settlers of the poorest 
classes which emigrate from this country. 

Some stress has already been laid upon the obvious 
necessity of obtaining correct information, but it may 
not be amiss, upon this important head, to make one 
further remark. 

You cannot be too strongly advised to seek it in 
the most respectable and disinterested quarters. 
Besides the correspondence above recommended, 
the publications of each of the land companies should 
be read and compared ; and the more voluminous 
works of the several authors, who have lately writ- 
ten on the subject of emigration, or on the colonies, 
should be, wherever possible, attentively perused. 
And all this might doubtless be accomplished, and 

THE emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 283 

the best accounts obtained, with the greatest facili- 
ties, through the means of associations; and on 
correct information a great deal depends ; for the 
comfort and prosperity of each little colony would, 
probably, in the first instance, be in a great measure 
influenced by the judicious or injudicious arrange- 
ments made in this country ; although the ultimate 
realization of permanent independence or affluence 
must rest with individual character, as in every other 
society in every country whatsoever. 

Ciolony associations would also be attended with 
this advantage to the emigrant, that a much larger 
scope would be given him, to fix upon the place of 
his location, than could be done in the case of single 
families, without running the risk of altogether 
abandoning society, as is sometimes the case, with 
those who go alone. Tempted by superiority of 
situation, or cheapness of land, they too often un- 
necessarily forego their present comfort, for future 
hopes, and bury themselves for a time in the gloom 
of the forest. 

There is also another inconvenience attending the 
new settlements in many parts of the colonies, which 
associations would much tend to remedy. This 
arises from the custom of the new settlers planting 
themselves along a road, sometimes for several 
miles, without laying out, or leaving room for a 
village ; so that, the necessary artizans and trades- 
men, to the disadvantage of all parties, are obliged, 
as they follow each other, to plant themselves at 
great distances apart, while the hundred acres of 

284 THB emigrant's introductiok. 

land which they are in many cases induced to occu* 
py, becomes a burden rather than a benefit, and is 
too apt to unsettle the mind, and engender loose or 
dissolute habits. 

Were it possible, as it perhaps may be, to write 
a sketch of the rise and progress of a Canadian set- 
tlement, which had been the offspring of chance, 
and where all the earlier settlers had been blindly 
gOTBrned by temporary objects, without fairly esti- 
mating the benefits to be derived from an early union 
of interests ; and were the writer to append to his 
story, the brief but more spirited history of perhaps 
Buffiilo or Richmond, on the other side of Ontario, 
the tale would be as interesting as instructive, to 
the enterprising emigrants and first tenants of the 
future settlements in Canada, and perhaps every 
other country : and it would form an excellent illus- 
tration of the just division and appropriation of 
labour, about which political economists say so much. 

A little colony of the above description would 
not know many of the wants of the earlier settlers, 
or be subjected to the inconveniences and trials, 
which the emigrants in many cases still experience 
for several years after their settlement. 

Among the first families who should emigrate 
upon principles, and under any arrangements of this 
kind, it is indispensably necessary that there should 
be a blacksmith and a joiner ; but the utility and 
early need of such other useful artizans as have been 
mentioned as most in demand in Canada, must de- 
pend upon the number of the settlers, and the situ^ 

THE emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 286 

ation of the colony, and may be safely left to the 
judgment and report of the leaders of the first colo- 
nists, and the convenience and means of obtaining 

Some books recommend you to take a great vari- 
ety of articles ; but, if the emigrant go to Upper 
Canada, he will find the difficulties of transport after 
landing, so tedious, that, in general, it would be 
better to turn into money every thing at all cumber- 
some that belongs to him, even at a considerable 
loss ; bat should he have made choice of either of 
the Lower Provinces, he had better make no sacri- 
fice, nor sell any useful article, unless the carriage to 
the port of embarkation should be an object. Cum- 
bersome articles of mere ornament should however 
be always disposed of. 

The cash which is realized, and all monies, should 
be deposited in safe hands, or transmitted through 
the channels of the government agents, or of one of 
the public companies. But, according to the dis- 
tance of the place of debarkation from the place 
of settlement, it may be found useful, where practi- 
cable, to carry out sufficient for incidental expenses. 
In the lower provinces, these are not so great as in 
the upper ; and, as most settlements are first formed 
on the banks of rivers, you will most likely be 
situated, where your goods may be more easily con- 
veyed, especially during the months of summer^ 
Whatever money may be taken, should be in 
Spanish dollars or sovereigns, which are the coins of 
the highest currency value in the colonies. For cash 



deposited, bills may be drawn after the emigrant 
arrives. They are generally at a premium which 
gives an advantage over every other method of 
transferring your personal property. 

The emigrant's best mode of mimi^ement, after 
bis arrival in America, need not be made a matter 
of concern with him during his inquiries on this side^ 
the water. The experience, and good or ill success, 
of those who have preceded him, will be his surest 
guide* His own latent resources will soon be 
opened, and there is little doubt of his employing 
his time to the best, advantage. If the situation of 
a little colony be remote from an improved country, 
the weariness of the sabbath-day, and the settler's 
desire to renew his religious duties, will soon point 
out the necessity of making efforts to raise a church, 
and to induce a clergyman to join the settlement; and 
as long as the church missionary and other benevo- 
lent societies exist, this will not be attended with 
great difficulty. The growth of his children will 
remind the colonist of the want of a school ; but, 
the united efforts of a few industrious families will 
soon secure this important acquisition : in the mean 
time, the emigrant should take with him some books 
adapted for children, with the whole contents of his 
library, on no account forgetting his family bible. 

Some mention has been already made of juvenile 
emigration : a few further remarks upon the prac- 
ticability of this means of relief at home, and of 
security and prosperity abroad, will embrace all 
that need be said upon this subject. 

THB emigrant's INTRODUCTION. 287 

Almost every one who has suggested a means of 
facilitating emigration, has neglected to speak of 
the benefits to be derived from the judicious and 
well-timed removal of infants to the agricultural 
colonies; and yet, the general utility, as well as 
particular good which might be anticipated from 
the institution of a well-digested measure for this 
purpose, is as evident, as is the facility with which 
the arrangements might be carried into effect, and 
the practical results ascertained. 

It has been already said, that every proceeding 
with this object should be under the superintendance 
of the government; but, it is not therefore necessary, 
that His Majesty's ministers should originate any 
scheme for promoting this species of settlement and 
relief. It would perhaps be better, that the plans 
should be devised by, and the proposals come directly 
from, the municipal authorities within the over- 
populous districts. 

Every orphan who becomes dependent upon pub- 
lic charity, and every infant under the age of ten or 
twelve years, which should be thrown entirely upon 
the national institutions for support, ought to be 
enrolled among the numbers, to be at a proper sea- 
son transferred to America. Establishments should 
be formed and appropriated for the admission 
of such children as might, upon several accounts, 
appeiar most eligible and best adapted to the colo- 
nies ; and, at a fit age, these should be under proper 
regulations dispatched to each of the lai^er towns, 
where provision might be made for their reception 

288 THE emigkakt'b introduction. 

and temporary support. The best age to transfer 
them would be between twelve and fifteen. 

Were these plans well matured, and the colonial 
minister put in possession of the necessary local in- 
formation, there is little doubt, that the govern- 
ment would patronize or assist such measures as 
should not be considered objectionable, tn this 
case, the governors of the provinces would doubtless 
be instructed to protect every establishment intended 
for the asylum of British infants, and duly adjusted, 
for the needful attention to, and proper care of, a 
species of settlers so desirable to multiply in the 

It is not to be supposed that children, however 
tender their age, would remain a burden upon those 
by whom the trans-atlantic establishments were sup- 
ported ; for, upon the requisite security being offered 
for their proper treatment and due instruction, 
they might be apprenticed, under restrictive condi- 
tions, and regulations subjected to the approval of 
the governors of the provinces. 

It is considered, that a child of seven years of age 
is no longer a cost to its parents or guardians. 
Children above that age would therefore be anxiously 
sought after, especially where new colonies were 
planted upon the principles above recommended; 
and it could hardly be anticipated, that, in many 
places, any of those that should be landed early in 
the summer, would of necessity remain in the asylum 
until the following spring. 
The feeling which has acted very strongly and 

TBB emigrant's intbodtjctiov. 289 

generally against emigration, might by these schemes 
of colonization be at once overthrown. The report 
of the rise and progress of each little society could be 
regularly received ; and those ties, which it has been 
found so difficult and painful to sever, would now 
bind, and set limits to the progress of knowledge 
and the improvement in condition, of those only, 
who would desire to rest their eyes for ever upon the 
same inanimate objects, to which habit has rivetted 
them, at the sacrifice of the most generous feelings of 
• nature. The continual dread, with those more espe- 
cially far advanced in life, that, at the end of the 
year, the balance of outlay and profit may turn the 
wrong scale, the anxiety about the prospects, or the 
disposal of their children with the middle-aged, and 
the delays of marriage with the young, may be 
escaped, without any other change, than that of 
engaging in new scenes of greater interest, and more 
definite benefit; and this, without following more 
irksome or operose employments. 

The savings which you here lay up for the pay- 
n^ent of rent, will there be employed in improving 
your own estate, in clearing away the trees, and in 
turning up the virgin soil, to yield its compound 
profits, as every succeeding season invites you to its 
healthful and particular labour. Be then, above all 
things, of a cheerful disposition, — 

" fresh in spirit, and resolved 
To meet all perils xery constantly;" 

and, of an unwavering and contented mind. If it is 


290 THB emigrant's IHTRODUCTIOir. 

not necessary to be prepared for the hardsbips, 
privations, and dangers, experienced by the first 
adventurers in America, the emigrant may have to 
surmount many temporary obstacles, and firmness 
and resolution will be his best support. By these 
he will overcome every difficulty, and, in time, re- 
ceive his full recompenoe, in the consummation of 
every reasonable hope. 

In a word, take with you your religion, and your 
love of country : but, as 3roa would not confine your 
system of worship and your faith, to the mere vene*- 
ration of particular rites and ceremonies, without 
indulgence or charity for the opinions and ceremo* 
nies of others, so should your patriotism, which 
cannot be too much cherished, extend to all, who 
acknowledge the power, claim the protection, and 
appreciate the moral influence of the British name. 

Before concluding, we may perhaps once more 
recur, with profit, to what has been said of the com- 
parative condition of the colonist and bis equal at 
home, of the several classes which have been herein 
most confidently recommended to emigrate. 

None that belong to any of the various profes- 
sions, except such as, " out of suits with fortune,'' 
are retrograding in their circumstances^ have 
been strongly urged to transfer their fortunes 
to the colonies. For these, indeed, the way is clear, 
and the prospect is fair. If their eyes are now open 
to the true value which should be set upon the mul- 
titudinous frivolities, in the pursuit of which they 


may haTe toiled ; and they woald desire to pursue 
a course, which should lead to more noble engage- 
meBts ; let them not cease in their investigations, 
concerning the condition of their fellow-subject 
in the American colonies, until they have thoroughly 
emnined every circumstance. What they abandon, 
they know how to estimate ; what they may gain, 
must depend upon individual character; and if this 
be enei^etie and open, they will shortly find them- 
selves engaged in the pursuit of some object, that is 
worthy to call forth the energies of a rational soul, 
and through the means of which, they may do good 
service to their country, while they benefit society 
by their example* 

The mind, thus enlarged by useful speealations, 
becomes more alive to the obligations of humanity, 
^nd voluntarily engages in the most appropriate 
exercises. The leisure hours of the settiier are em- 
ployed in devising plans, and putting into operation 
the best measures for the improvement of the unin- 
structed classes of his fellow-creatures, or the ame- 
lioration of the condition of the unfortunate. And 
are not these pursuits more worthy ambition, than 
the contract to obey the modish laws of fashion, but 
the more tyrannic as you rise the higher, and which 
are, in truth, but the clogs that fetter genius, and 
depress the efforts of the understanding-*-a contract, 
by which sincerity and friendship, the great sources 
of social enjoyment, are driven from a thousand 
abodes, or are so concealed under the veil of polite- 

o 2 


ness or affectation, that they are no longer dis-> 

Among those who have been the least scrupulously 
recommended to emigrate, the principal are, the 
agriculturist of small capital that is not productive, 
the tradesman or mechanic thrown out of employ- 
ment, or unable to set-up in business, the operative 
mechanic, and sometimes the toiling mercliant's 
assistant, or, sedentary employed persons in other 
branches of business ; but, above all, the agricul- 
tural labourer, who is blessed, not cursed, with a 

It is hardly necessary to remind the reader, that 
it is not the successful of any avocation or degree, 
that have been the objects of the comparison in 
condition so much dwelt upon in these pages, or of 
the advice which has been to numbers so unreserv- 
edly offered. 

' The first, the agriculturist, is not unacquainted 
with the character of those pleasures and those 
comforts which the cultivation of the soil affords ; 
but, he must experience the superior delight of 
working his own land, and applying the surplus 
produce of his industry to the improvement of his 
own freehold, before he can appreciate the advan- 
tages of the change. Let him, for he may now 
have the opportunity, peruse the letters of those 
who have been ten years settled, and he will be 
furnished with the necessary information, to enable 
him to balance the good and evil of his condition. 


with that of the colonist. The colonist, he may, 
perchance, find with few cares relating to his voca- 
tion, beyond those to which the penalty of Adam, 
** the seasons' difference," has subjected him, in com- 
mon with all his race. Bat how different is ^t^ con- 
dition, who knows not when the harvest is gathered, 
that he shall again sow and reap the same field 
which has so plentifully yielded the bounty of 
heaven, but so ill-requited his anxious cares. 

To the tradesman, or mechanic, who should emi- 
grate, the effects of the transition, as already ob- 
served, will not be so great as with persons of 
almost every other class ; nevertheless, his impor- 
tance in society will be greatly augmented, and his 
field of pursuits, if not that of profitable returns, 
will be much enlarged. 

But if there be any, of liberal mind or free-spirit, 
upon whom '4ife's evening star" has not yet arisen, 
among that class which may be compelled to limit 
their expectations to the irksome under business of 
an office, their present occupation, but who are, as 
they well may be — 

" Sick of the service of a world that feeds 

Its patient drudges with dry ehaff and weeds ;*' 

let them investigate more fully the interesting 
question, of which the matter herein contained is 
but the bare and fugitive outline ; and, if they can 
escape from " custom's idiot sway," they may soar 


above the toilsome and mean employment, in which 
nature never intended they should for ever drudge. 
But, they must not be prejudiced in their examina' 
tion, or too hasty in determining. In the former 
case, they may unwittingly pass by the ikir chances 
of honourable independence; in the latter, they 
may precipitately rush upon irretrievable ruin ; for^ 
among no class are there so few adapted to the 
business and pursuits of a new country ; yet, than 
to those few, there are none to whom the boon of 
emigration would be more grateful. 

It remains but to recur to the comparative con- 
dition of the agricultural labourer, or other poor 
man, at home, and abroad : and it is persons of this 
class, that have been most strenuously excited to 
emigration ; for, wherever age has not blunted the 
*' hungry edge of appetite" for the possessioB of 
independence and comfort, these will experience, 
above all others, the enjoyment of that boon, which 
is ever the reward of good conduct and industry in 
the new world. 

In order to set in the most glaring light, and weU 
appreciate the greatest individual benefit of this 
system of relief, we must enter the poor man's 
habitation, become ejre-witnesses of his scanty meal 
— contemplate his countenance of care — see his chil- 
dren bringing up in idleness, and rice, creeping, 
with slow, but sure footsteps, into what was once 
perhaps, and ought still to be, the sober dwelling of 
requited industry, contentment, and virtue. We 

THE emigrant's introductiok. 295 

must then suppose the same individual, with his 
family, transferred to that colony which offers the 
best field for his' habitual pursuits, or the particular 
turn of his mind. Here, if we follow him after 
three or four years, we shall find him already 
lodged in his own sufficient house, well-stored 
with the necessaries of life and every real luxury. 
His sons and his daughters will be free from 
poverty and its attendant evils, the younger sort 
acquiring their education, and the elder boys pre- 
paring to provide for themselves. Instead of 
complaining of the difficulty of paying his rent, the 
uncertainty of the tenure by which he holds his 
land, or the scanty profits which remain after every 
claim is satisfied, you will behold him, enjoying the 
fruits of his labour in proportion to his industry ; 
and if the period of his location should exceed six 
or seven years, very probably you will find his first 
bastily-erected dwelling replaced by a better, and 
surrounded by fifteen or twenty acres^ or if his 
family be large, perhaps thirty acres, of culti- 
vated land, with the remain4er of his farm of one 
hundred acres, although in woods, of the same capa- 
bility as that portion already tilled. This favoured 
and fortunate man-**- 

'^ Whose herds with milk, whose fields with bread, 

Whose flocks supply him with attire ; 
Whose tree« in summer yield him shade, 

In wipter, fire f* 

896 THE emigrant's INTBOBUCTIOir. 

was, at home, among the poorest of his calling ; 
but, he now holds this fair possession, unen- 
cumbered and entirely his own— such is, at this 
time, the condition of many a sometime pauper, and 
such may'be the future fortunes of every industrious 
poor man who advisedly emigrates to the American 

The indulgent reader may not have reached the 
conclusion of this little volume, without having 
received some new impressions upon a subject 
embracing the most momentous interests. Some 
dormant feelings may have been awakened to a 
sense of the danger of protracted indifference re- 
specting the increase of our population, which can- 
not be set at less than 1000 souls per day. But 
the chief aim of this undertaking has been, to put 
the suffering Briton, who has reflected but little 
upon the future, on the direct road of straightfor- 
ward inquiry, concerning the condition of his fellow- 
subjects in America ;\ and, by this means, to en- 
courage extensive emigration, the most natural and 
.most advantageous remedy for evils which are ac- 
knowledged to arise from excess of population, and 
the best means of promoting the individual as well 
as national prosperity of the present and future 

If we can indeed, by the same means, and at the 
same time, take off the pressure which weighs so 


he&Yily upon industry, and improve the condition 
of our fellow-subjects both at home and abroad, 
and these objects be so easy to accomplish, con- 
viction must strike every mind, that it is'the part of 
true wisdom to adopt such measures as benevolence 
and patriotism, united with interest, may suggest. 
The field of enterprize is unlimited. The dominions 
of Britain extend over a large proportion of the 
whole globe, comprising, in every climate, regions 
of almost boundless extent, and doomed to cherish, 
to the most remote period, the virtue of institutions 
which have no parallel in the history of mankind. 



In the course of this little work, frequent allu-^ 
sion has been made to the disposition of the 
Government towards Emigrants, and the regula- 
tions in force, as well to insure their comfort on 
the voyage, as to facilitate their settlement in the 
colonies. Reference has likewise been made to 
the advantages arising to the Emigrant from the 
encouragement given by the Land-companies en- 
gaged in colonizing the North American Provinces. 
The following pages will be found to contain the 
most useful information concerning the regulations 
of the Oovernment, and the terms at which the 
crown-lands are offered for sale, both in North 
America, and in the Australian Colonies ; and also 
the terms of the Lands, as well as some useful 
particulars concerning the local arrangements, of 
the several Companies ; with other practical in- 
formation for the Emigrant's guide in putting his 
plans into execution. 

APPBKDnt. 299 

VoT ike Disposal of Lands belonging to the Crown in 
the British North American Provinces. 

Thb lands are no longer to be given away by free 
grants, but are to be sold. 

The Commissioners of the Crown-lands will, at least 
once in every year, submit to the Governor a Report of 
the land which it may be expedient to offer for sale 
within the then ensuing year, and the upset price per 
acre at which he would recommend it to be offered ; the 
land so offered having beon previously surveyed and 
valued in one or more contiguous tracts of those which 
are most adapted for settlement, according to the local 
peculiarities of the province, and in proportion to the 
number of deputy-surveyors who can be employed. 

The lands to be laid out in lots of 100 acres each, and 
plans of such parts as are surveyed to be prepared for 
public inspection, which plans may be inspected in the 
office of the Surveyor-General, or in that of his deputies 
in each district, on payment of the fee of 2s. 6d. 

Hie Commissioner of Crown-lands will proceed to the 
sale in the following manner: — He will give public 
notice in the Gazette, and in such other newspapers as 
may be circulated in the Province, as well as in any 
other manner that circumstances will admit of, of the 
time and place appointed for the sale of the lands in 
each district, and of the upset price at which the lands 
are proposed to be offered ; he will give notice that the 
lots will be sold to the highest bidder ; and if no offer 
should be made at the upset price, that the lands will be 
reserved for future sale in a similar manner by auction. 

The purchase-money will be required to be paid down 
at fhe time of sale, or by four instalments with interest; 

the first instalment at the time of. the sale, and the 
seccmd) thirth^ and fourth instalment at intervals of half- 

If the instalments are not regularly, paid^ the deposit- 
money will be forfeited, and the land again referred to 
sale. — See Additional Regulations. 

Public notice will be given in each district, in every 
year, stating the names of the persons in each district 
who may be in arrears for the instalments of their pur- 
chases, and announcing that if the arrears are not paid 
up before the commencement of the sales in that district 
for the following years, the lands in respect of which the 
instalments may be due will be the first lot to be exposed 
to auction at the ensuing sales; and if any surplus of the 
produce of the sale of each lot should remain, after 
satisfying the Crown of the sum due, the same will be 
paid to the original purchasers of the land who made 
default in payment. 

The patent for the land will not be issued, nor any 
transfer of the property allowed, until the whole of the 
instalments are paid. The lands sold under this regula- 
tion are not to be chargeable with quit-rents, or any 
farther payment beyond the purchase-money and the 
expense of the patent. 

Persons desirous of buying land, in situations not 
included in the tracts already surveyed, must previously 
pay for the expense of survey, and the price must of 
course depend upon the quality of the land and its local 

The. Crown will reserve to itself the right of making 
and constructing such roads and bridges as may be 
necessary for public purposes in all lands purchased as 
above; and aLso to such indigenous timber, stone, and 


Other mateiiali, the produce of the land, as may be 

required for making and keeping the said roads and 

bridges in repair, and for any other publiq works. The 

Crown further reserves to itself all mines of precious 


The regulations for granting licences to cut timber 

will be learnt by application to the Surveyor-GeneraFs 

office in the respective Colonies. 

Colonial O^vzcb, 
1th Marchf IB^l. 


Colonial Oppicb, 
l^k Februoeryy 1837. 

Much inconvenience having arisen in the North 
American Colonies, from the system of receiving the 
payment for Crown -lands by instalments. His Majesty's 
Government have decided to discontinue that practice. 
Accordingly the Governors of those Colonies have been 
directed to give notice, that, from and after the 1st of 
June, 1837, that part of the existing Regulations which 
relates to the mode of paying the purchase-money will 
be abolished, and tliat instead of it a deposit of 10 per 
cent, on the whole value of the purchase will be in future 
required to be paid down at the time of sale, and the 
remainder of the price witliin fourteen days from that 
time; that until this payment is made, the purchaser 
will not be put in possession of the land, and that, in 
ease of his failure to pay the money within the prescribed 
period, the sale will be considered void, and the deposit 
will be forfeited. 


His Majbstt's Qotbrkmbnt, with a view of afford* 
ing protection and asaistanoe to emigrants proceeding 
from the Ont-ports, have appointed the following 

Agents : — 

LiYBBPOOli Lieut. Low, ILN. 

Bristol Lieut. Hbnbt, R.N. 

Lbith Lieut. Forrest, R.N. 

Grbbnocx Lieut. Hbmmans, R.K. 

Dublin Lieut. Hoddbb, R.N. 

GoBK Lieut. Fbibnd, R.N. 

LiicBBicK Lieut. Lynch, R.N. 

Bblfabt lieut. Millbb, R.N. 


Lieut. Lban, near the London Docks, London. 

In addition to the above-named offioerB, Thos. Fbe- 
BERiCK Elliot, Esq. has been appointed His Majesty's 
Agent*6eneral, (resident in London,) for the furtherance 
of Emigration from England to the British Colonies, by 
affording all facilities and information to Parish 
Authorities and Landed Proprietors desirous of further- 
ing the Emigration of Labourers and others from their 
respective districts. 

All letters on this subject should be addressed to Mr. 
Elliot, under cover, to the Colonial Secretary of 

Information for the useof Military and Naval Officers 
proposing to settle in the British Colonies. 

« I. Annexed is a Statement of the Regulations 
according to which, with such modificatioiui as local 


circumstances may render necessary, lands belonging to 
the Crown are diflposed of in the several British Colonies 
in North America, 

2. Under these Regulations, Military and Naval 
Officers cannot receive free grants of land ; bnt, in 
baying land, they are allowed a remission of the 
purchase-money, according to the undermentioned 

Field-officers of 35 years' service and apwards, iu the whole £300 

Field-officers of 20 years' service and upwards, in the whole 250 

Field-officers of 15 or less years' service, in the whole . • 200 

Captains of 20 years' service and upwards, in the whole . 300 

Captains of 15 years' service or less, in the whole .... 150 

Bubaltems of 90 y«ars' service and upwards, in the whole . 150 

Bnbaltems of 7 years' service or less, in the whole . . . 100 

Regimental Staff Officers and Medical Officers of the ' 
Army and Navy will be deemed to come within the 
benefit of this rule. 

3. Officers of the Army or Navy, who propose to 
proceed to the Colonies in order to take advantage of 
this indulgence, should provide themselves with certifi- 
cates from the office of the Qeneral commanding in 
Chief, or of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
shewing that their Emigration has been sanctioned, and 
stating exactly their rank and length of service. No 
document from die office of the Secretary of State is 

4. Officers on half-pay, residing in the Colony where 
tliey propose to settle, may be admitted to the privileges 
of MHitsuy and Naval Settlers, without referring to tiaa 
country for testimonials, provided they can satisfy the 
Governor that there is no objection to their being ^r 
allowed the indulgence, and that their return of their 

904 APPBJffBI^. 

rank and length of service is accurate, and prorided, If 
they^ belong to the Navy, that they produce their letter 
of leave of absence from the Admiralty. 

6. Military Chaplains, Commissariat Officers, and 
Officers of any of the Civil Departments connected with 
the Army, cannot be allowed any privileges on the 
subject of land. Pursers, Chaplains, Midshipmen, 
Warrant Officers of every description, and Officers of 
any of the Civil Departments connected with the Navy, 
must also be considered as not qualified for those 
privileges. Although members of these classes may 
have been admitted formerly, and under a different 
state of circumstances, they must now be excluded. 

6. Gentlemen who have ceased to belong to His 
Majesty's Service cannot be allowed the advantages to 
which they were entitled while in the Army or Navy. 
It is not, however, proposed to affect, by this rule, 
officers who desire to quit the service for the express 
purpose of settling in the Colonies : it is only required, 
that when they resign their commissions, they should 
apply for a certificate from the General commanding in 
Chief, or from the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, that they do so widi the view of emigrating ; and 
such certificate, if produced to the Grovemor of any 
Colony, within one year from its date, but not othemnUf 
will be a sufficient warrant for allowing the bearer the 
same advantages as officers still in His Mi^esty's 

Officers who have sold out within the last twelve 
mimths preceding the date of this memorandum, will be 
allowed the usual privileges, notwithstanding their want 
of the certificate required by these r^ulationg, if they 
present themselves to the Governor of the Coboy withbi 

a jear from ih/^ present date. And all officers who 
have already been recommended hy the General com- 
manding in Chiefs will be entitled to their privileges, 
without regard to any obstruction which might other- 
wise be offered by the regulations now established. 

7. Officers cannot be allowed advantages in the 
acquisition of land in any Colony, unless it be their 
intention to fix their residence in that Colony. In order 
to insure the observance of this rule, it has been 
determined that the titles to lands obtained by officers 
who take advantage of the peculiar regulations existing 
in their &vour, shall be withholden for a period sufficient 
to prove that they have not repaired to the Colony for 
the mere purpose of gaining possession of a portion 
of land, and then departing. Two years is the period 
for which it has been decided that the titles shall be 
kept back; this delay will be sufficient for the salutary 
object in view, and will not constitute any senous incon- 
venience to the hon&Jide settler. 

8. By the annexed Regulations for the disposal of 
Crown-lands, it will be observed that the general sales 
will take place periodically. But, in order to prevent 
inconvenience to officers who may arrive in the intervals 
between those sales, and be desirous at once to obtain an 
allotment, the Governors of the Colonies are authorized 
to allow officers to acquire, at any time, on payment of 
the upset price, lands which have previously been 
offisred for sale at some general sale, and not been 

Officers will thus be relieved from delay at the time of 
establishing themselves in the Colony. They wiU also 
be enabled by this arrangement, which will p^mit them 
to obtain their land at a fixed price, to choose such a 


quantitj as shall be exactly equivalent to tbe amount of 
the remission to which they are entitled, instead t>f being 
liable to be called upon to pay a balance, which must be 
the case if they bid for lands at a sale by auction. 

9. There being little or no Crown-land available in 
~Prince Edward's Island, officers cannot be offered 
any privileges in the acquisition of land in that Colony. 
In Cape Breton, an island in which the natural induce- 
ments for the settlement of officers are not very consider- 
able, it is necessary, from local circumstances, &at there 
should not be a remission of purchase-money as in other 
Colonies : to such officers as may wish to settle in this 
island, allotments of land will be granted on the same 
scale and conditions as before the general introduction 
of the system of selling the Crown-lands, viz. : — 

To a Lieutenant Colonel - • - • 1,200 acres 


„ Major 1,000 

„ Captain , • » « . 800 

„ Subaltern .-•*.. 500 ,, 

Colonial Office, 
Ibth Augutty 1834. 

Lands in Upper Canada^ to he disposed of hy the 

Canada Company, 

Thb Canada Compakt have Lands for Sale in almost 
every part of the province of Upper Canada, on terms 
which cannot fail to be highly advantageous to the Emi- 
grant, as, from the Company requiring only one-fifth of 
the purchase-mon^ to be paid in cash, and allowing the 
remainder to be divided into five annual payments, bear* 


ingintereety the Settler, if indnstrioug, is enabled to pay 
die balance from the produce of the land. 

The Laitdb op thb Canada Company are of three 
descriptioDs, viz;"— 

Scattered Reserves ; 

Blocks or Tracts of Land^ of from 1,000 to 40^000 acres each ; 

The Hiirou Tract, containing upwards of 1>000|000 acres. 


The scattered Crown Reserves are lots of land of from 
100 to 200 acres each, distributed through nearly every 
Township in the Province, and partaking of the Soil, 
Climate, &c. of each particular Township. These lands 
are especially desirable for persons who may have friends 
settled in their neighbourhood, and can be obtained at 
prices varying from Qs, Qd. to 26s. currency an acre. 


The Blocks or Tracts lie entirely in that part of the 
Province situated to the westward of the head of Lake 
Ontario, and contain lands, which for soil, climate, and 
powers of production, are equal, and perhaps superior, to 
any on the continent of America. These are worthy the 
attention of Communities of Emigrants, who, from 
country, relationship, religion, or any other bond, wish 
to settle together. 

The largest block of this kind in the Company's pos 
session is the Township of Ouelph, containing upwards 
of 40,000 acres, of which the greater part has been 
already sold, and in the space of a few years only, a town 
has been established, containing Churches, Schools, 
Stores, Taverns, and Mills, and where there are mecha-* 
sics of ey^ kind, and a society of a highly respect^l^ 

308 XfTBSnVL. 

description. Property has improyed in value from SfiO 
to 1,000 per cent. ; thus showing, beyond the possibility 
of doubt, the advantages which the plans adopted by the 
Canada Company, in the settlement of their lands, have 
conferred upon the Emigrant. The same plans being 
adhered to in the Huron Tract, there is every reason to 
expect similar results. 


This is a tract of the finest land in America, through 
which the Canada Company have cut two roads of 
upwards of 100 miles in extent, of the best description of 
which a new country admits. The population there is 
rapidly on the increase. 

The Town of Goderich, at the mouth of the River 
Maitland, on Lake Huron, is very flourishing, and con- 
tains several excellent stores, or merchant shops, in which 
any article, usually required by a Settler, is to be ob- 
tained on reasonable terms. Thei:e is, a good School 
established, which is well attended, — a Church of Eng^ 
land and a Presbyterian clergyman are appointed there ^ 
and 83 the churches in Upper Canada are now principaUy 
supported by the voluntary subscriptions of their respec- 
tive congregations, an inference may be drawn of the 
respectable character of the inhabitants of this settlement 
and the neighbourhood. The Town and Township of 
Goderich contain about 1,000 inhabitants ; and since the 
steam-boat, built by the Company for the accommodation 
of their settlers, has commenced runi^ng between Crode- 
rich and Sandwich, a great increase has taken place in 
the trade and prosperity of the settlement. Jn this tract 
there are four good saw-mills, three grist-mills, and in 
the neighbourhood of each will be found stores well snp- 

AP^tHOlX. 309 

plied. And as the tract ccmtains a million acres, the 
greater portion of which is open for sale, an Emigrant 
or body of Emigrants, however la^, can have no diffi- 
culty in selecting eligible situations, according to their 
circumstances, however various they may be. The price 
of these lands is from Us. Sd, to 168, provincial currency, 
or about from 11j». to 13^. 6d. sterling per acre. 

The Company's Commissioners at Toronto (late York) 
in Upper Canada, or the Agents at Gnelph and the 
Huron Tract, will treat with Emigrants for the purchase 
of lands, in quantities of 100 acres or upwards. 

The Company do not interfere in the outward passage 
of Emigrants, but passages to Quebec or Montreal may 
be obtained on the most reasonable terms, from any of 
the great shipping ports in Great Britain and Ireland, by * 
application to the Ship-owners and Brokers. 

The Company will receive deposits of honst at 
THEIR Office, in London, (No. 13, St. Helen's Place, 
bishopsoate-street,) from persons emigrating to 
Canada, giving letters of credit on their Commis- 
sioners IN Canada, for the amount, bt which the 
Emigrai(ts obtain the benefit of the current premium 

OF exchange. 

The class of persons chiefly required in Upper Canada, 
and who, of course, will find it best suited to their pur- 
poses, are small Capitalists, Farmers, Mechanics, and 
Labourers. Those possessed of large capital can find 
profitable and safe investments for their money in the 
Stock of the Banks, &c. and in the Public Securities, 
the latter being invested at 6 per cent. Mortgages at 6 
per cent, also, on lands and tenements, can be had on 
unexceptionable security, as a Register-Ofilce in each 
county prevents the possibility of fraud or deception 

310 APPXKinx. 

being practised hy obtaining nuHiey on encumbered pro- 

All furtiier information may be obtained by letter, 
(post paid,) directed to John Perrt, Secretary, St. 
Helen's Place, London ; of the Agents, 

Messrs. Hart Logan & Co. Montreal ; 

Charlbs Atkinson, Esq. 16, Beaver^rtreet, New York ; 

Of the Company's Commissioners, 

The Hon. William Allan and Thomas Mbbcer Jonss, 
Esq. Toronto f (late York,) Upper Canada; 

And in the United Kingdom, of 

Messrs. Acraman, Briitd; 

John AsTLB,£sq. Dublin-, 

George Buchanan, Esq. Omagh, Londonderry ; 

Messrs. Gilkison & Brown, Olasgow ; 

Messrs. Acraman & Co. Liverpool ; 

or of the different Ship-owners and Brokers at the 
Outports in the Canada Trade, all of whom, as well as 
any persons interesting themselves practically in Emi- 
gration to Upper Canada, may have a parcel of the 
Company's proposals and printed papers sent to them, 
on applying to the Secretary by letter or otherwise. 

CanadarHo9i»e, St, Helenas Place f 
Bishoptgate^streety January, 1837. 


Zand for Sale in the Eastern Townships, by the 
British American Zand Company. 

The BamsH American Land Company have for sale 
lands' in every part of this section of Canada, but they 


are piinoipallj situated in the counties of Drummondy 
Stansteady Shefford, and Sherbrooko. The price of these 
lands varies according to their situation, quality, and 
advantages ; the terms of payment being a deposit of 
one-fourth or one-fifth of the purchase-money, according 
to circumstances, on taking possession, the remainder 
payable by five equal annual instalments, bearing the 
legal interest of the province. This arrangement enables 
the industrious settler to realize the greater part of the 
remaining price from the produce of his &rm. 

The Lands of the Company comprise Improved Farms, 
Wild or Uncleared Land, and Building Lots, in the 
various towns and villages. 

Improvxd Farms. — The Improved Farms are of 
various extent, with cleared fields, orchards, houses, and 
barns. The quantity of land cleared is varying. The 
average price of these properties is, at present, from ten 
to twelve dollars per acre, (the dollar is worth 4^. 2d. 
sterling) j the soil is of excellent quality, and they are 
highly eligible for parties with some capital, who are 
desirous of settling upon lands already under cultivation, 
with buildings attached. Immediate possession can be 
given, and in the event of growing crops they can be 
made over to a purchaser on a fair and reasonable valu- 

Wild or Uitclearbd Land. — ^The uncleared land is 
laid out in lots of from 50 to 200 acres, to meet the 
views and resources of all classes of settlers, and at 
present varies in price from 1^ to 2 J dollars (from Qs. Sd. 
to 10s» 5d, sterling) the acre, according to the situation, 
quality, soil, &c. The Company is also willing to dispose 
of tracts of uncleared land, to a a society of individuals 

312 APPEin>ix« 

who might wish to form a settlement of their own imme- 
diate friends or countrjrmen. 

Building Lots.— The Bailding Lots the Company 
ave on sale, are situated in the town plots of Sherbrooke 
and Port St. Francis. Those at Sherbrooke are laid out 
in half-acre lots, and those at Port St. Francis, 110 feet 
by 45 feet ; the present price of the former is £50 j and 
of the latter from JS20 to £25 Hallifax. currency, payable 
by a deposit of one-half, and the remainder at the expi- 
ration of one year, with interest. 

The following is an estimate of the necessary expenses, 
from Great Britain to St. Francis District, in Lower 
Canada : — 

From a British Port to Port St. Francii, withoat 
transhipment, the steerage passage, including ample 
provisions, may generally be secured for £5 56. 
each adult ; and, assuming that a family, including 
children, contains (on an average age), four adults, 
this expense will be equal to £21 

FW>m Port St. Francis, 9 cwt. of baggage, a quantity 
not exceeded in usual cases, and the same family 

will be conveyed from Sherbrooke for • • • > • 1 10 

(the time occupied tliree dayt*) 

'From Sherbrooke to Victoria, at present the most dis- 
tant settlement, in two days, for 1 

Provisions on the route 10 

In round numbers, time forty days, cost £24 

Thus, a family may reach the Company's lands for the 
sum of '^ twenty-four pounds ;" and if the arrangements 
of several parties were united, even the above scale of 
expense might be reduced. 

Should Hie passage end at Quebec^ on arrival there. 


the parties intending to proceed to the Eastern Town- ; 
ships, should immediately apply to Mr. Lee Speer, the 
Agent of the British American Land Company, who 
will afford them every assistance and information in 
reaching their destination. 

The Company will, for the security and accommoda- 
tion of emigrants, receive at their office in London, any 
sums of money to be remitted to Canada, and will grant 
lettoTB of credit for the same, payable in Quebec, Mon- 
treal, and Sherbrooke, which will entitle the parties to 
whom the money is to be paid, to receive the amount of 
sterling money therein specified, converted into currency^ 
with the benefit of the premium of exchange at the tim^ 
of presentation for payment, and free of any commissjpn 
or change whatever. And for the encouragement of 
emigrants who may purchase lands from the Company, 
interest at the rate of three per cent, per annum will be 
allowed them, from the time when the deposit is made 
with the Company in London, in addition to the exchange 
above-mentioned, when that period shall not be less than 
three months. 

For further particulars, and for such papers as may be 
issued from time to time by the Company, application 
may be made to Henby P. Bruyeres, Esq., Secretary 
to die Company, No. 4, Barge Yard, Bucklersbury, Lou- 
don, or to the under-mentioned Agents : — 


Liverpool Messrs. Kenneth Bowie k Co. 

■ Briitol Messrs. Thomas Clark and Son. 

PortmMuiii WilUam Atfleld, Esq. 

P^fmofdh ••..•.* Messrs. Fox, Sons, & Go. 

Poole . • • William Furuell, Esq. 

Workington ...William Fell^ Esq 



Maryport John Wood Esq. 

Whiiehaoen J. P. Younghusband, Esq. 

HuU Messrs. Holdemess & Chilton. 

Yarmmah Messrs. Fellowes, Barth, & Palmer. 

South Shields Messrs. R. k W. Anderson. 

Sunderland Messrs. W. k T. B. Ord. 

Newport, Monmouthshire . . .Messrs. Stonehouse & Co. 
Gloucester Messrs. Phillpots, Baker, & Co. 


DubHn Messrs. Joseph Wilson, Son, &, Co. 

Beffast Robert M'Entire, Esq. 

Londonderry Messrs. William M'Corkell & Co. 

Keusry Messrs. J. & J. Lyle. 

Cerk Messrs. Ciunmins, Brothers, Co. 

New Ross Messrs. Howlet & Co. 

Wateiford Messrs. Richard Pope k, Co. 

Limerick Messrs. Harvey, Brothers. 

Sligo Messrs. Scott & Patrickson. 


Glasgow Messrs. Gillespie, Stewart, & Co. 

Greenock Messrs. Alan Ker k Co. 

Aberdeen Messrs. Robert Catto k Son. 

Leiih .Messrs. William Allan k Son. 

Ihmdee James Soot, Esq. 

^ISSZ:^*'^^'! \ M-"- ^- * A. y Brook.. 

To parties who have determined to emigrate, and wish 
to make enquiry fteiative to the Company's Lands, letters 
of recommendation will be given, if required, to the 
Company's Commissioners, the Hon. Peter McGill and 
the Hon. George Moffat, resident at Montreal; and 
A. C. Webster, Esq. sub-commissioner, resident at Sher- 
brooke, in the Eastern Townships. 

London, January, 1837. . 



Lands for Sale by the New Brunswick and Nova 

Scotia Land Company, 


The Tract of Land purchased from the Crown, by the 
New Brunswick Land Company, consiste of Six Hun- 
dred Thousand Acres, most eli^bly situated in the 
County of York, in the centre of the Province, and 
lying between the fine navigable rivers St. John and 
Miramichi. It is about 60 miles in length along the 
N. W. boundary line, and in breadth from 20 to 30 

The Tract consists, generally, of land of superior 
description, a great portion of it being of the finest land 
in the Province. 

The royal road to the Grand Falls, leading to Quebec, 
touches the Company's Lands about eight miles from 
Fredericton, from which point the Company have just 
completed a turnpike-road, for about 16 miles, to their 
new town of Stanley, situated on the River Nashwauk, 
in the centre of the Tract. At this place a grist-mill, 
two saw-mills, tavern, and several nouses for settlers 
have been built, and the site of the town has been laid 
out into house or building-lots of half-an-acre each. 

The Company are completing the line of road about 
20 miles further, viz., from the town of Stanley to the 
N.E. until it strikes the S.W. branch of the Miramichi 
river, at the new settlement of Campbell, where a saw 
and grist-mill, blacksmith's forge, and several houses 


have been already built, and a considerable quantity of 
land cleared. 

The Company's Lands are trarersed along the N.E. 
boundary by the Miramichi rirer, which is navigable to 
the sea. The lands are also intersected by several 
rivers and streams, among which the Taxis, and the 
Nashwauk, communicate with the two noble rivers 
which lie at the extremities of the Company's Ttract. 


The Company's Agents have already marked out 
(along the line of road leading from Fredericton through 
Stanley to Campbell, 35 miles) numerous lots of land» 
in farms of 100 and 200 acres, or more, in each lot* 
Purchasers will also find great choice of allotments of 
lands along the course of the rivers which intersect the 
Company's Tract, east and west of the turnpike-road. 

These Lands are now ofiered for Sale, on terms highly 
favourable to Emigrants from the United Elingdom; 
viz. : — 

I. — One-fifth of the purchase-money to be paid down. 

IL — The buyer to have the option of paying the remain- 
der in four anniial instalments, adding interest at 
£5 per cent, from the date of sale. 

The I^nds wiU be conveyed to Purchasers in free and 
common soccage.* 

In order to afibrd the most decisive encouragement to 
Emigrants, the Company have determined that the price 
of their Lands, with clearing and log^houses built 
thereon, shall be fixed for the present only at 128, 6cL to 
17^. 6d, currency, equal to about 10^. to 158. British 
sterling per statute acre. The pricea of Town and 

▲PPBNDIX. 317 

Township Lots are also fixed according to the ^ame 
moderate scale^ varying according to situation. 

The Company have given directions to their Agents 
in the Province, to cut die timber and clear about five 
acres on each of the 100-acre farms, upon which a log- 
house has been built. 



Yessels land their passengers at the town of Chatham, 
on the Miramichi river, where the Company's Agent 
resides, who will forward all emigrants to the eastern 
portion of the Company's lands. — ^The passage by water, 
from Chatham to the Company's mills and township of 
Campbell, is performed in scows, or flat-bottomed 
boats, in three days, at Is. Qd. currency each passenger. 

Also at the Port of St. John's, in the southern part of 
the Province, from whence steam-boats start, every 
morning, for Fredericton, eighty miles up the river, so 
that the Emigrant may, if he chooses, reach the Com- 
pany's lands the same evening, and with all his baggage 
the next day. 

The present steerage-fares by the steam-boats, from 
St. John's to Fredericton, are one dollar or 4s. 2d. each 
passenger, and \0s. per ton for lug^ge ; if in consider- 
able quantities, less is charged. 

Conveyance of luggage from Fredericton to Stanley, 
by the Company's new road, is about 40^.. or 50^. per 
ton ; in winter, 25«. to 90;. By the Hiver Nashwauk, 
25«. to dO«. per ton. 


Vessels bound from Chatham on the Miramichi river, 
or for the Port of St. John's, will be found at all the 

p 3 

318 41>P£NDIX. 

prlDcipal ports in England^ Scotland, and Ireland, upon 
application to ship-owners and brokers. 

The Emigrant should sail, if possible, not lat^ than 
the 20th April, in order that he may have time to settle 
his family, and harvest his crops of the first season before 
the winter comes on. 


Is very moderate, either to the Miramichi River or 

St. John's. 

Without Provisions. 

For a grown person, in the Steerage, about £3 lOs. to £3; 

Cabin £10. 

CWldren Steerage- £1 to £2; 

Cabin £5. 

With Provisions. 

For a grown person, in the Steerage, £6 to £6 10«» ; 
Cabin, £20. 

From Ireland and Scotland the whole expense is 
considerably less. 


That ordinary baggage of Emigrants consists of their 
wearing-apparel, with such bedding and utensils for 
cooking as may be useful in the voyage ; all articles of 
clothing not wanted in the voyage, should be packed in 
water-tight cases or trunks, not exceeding eighty or 
ninety pounds weight each. 


An Emigrant Farmer, with sufficient capital, will find 
it highly useful to take out with him as much clothing, 
bedding, and linen, as his family will require for one 


year at least; culinary utensils; a set of light cart- 
harness ; a few spades and shorels, and two scythes ; six 
sickles and strong hoes ; two pair of plough-traces ; the 
iron-work of a plough and harrow ; the cast machinery 
of a corn-fan ; one jointer-plane ; one draw-knife ; six 
socket-chisels ; six gouges ; one hand-saw ; two or three 
hammers ; three or four augers assorted, not larger than 
1 J inch ; twelve gimhlets ; a few door-hinges and latches ; 
a small assortment of nails ; a cross-cut and whip-saw. 

Fob the accommodation of Emigrants, the New 
Brunswick Land Company will receive Deposits of 
Monet at their Office in London (see below) from 
persons intending to emigrate to New Brunswick, 


ON THEIR Commissioner, &c. in New Brunswick, 
payable without any deduction or charge for 
Agency or Commission. 

To Emigrants purchasing Lands from the Company, 
Interest will be allowed at the rate of £3 per cent, per 
annum, calculated from the day on which the money is 
deposited with the Company in London. 

All further information may be obtained by letter, post 
paid, addressed to the Court of Directors of the New 
Brunswick Land Company, London. 

Also, of the Company's Commissioners and Agent in 
the Province, as follows : viz. — 

H. CxTNARD, Esq., Hon. Commissioner, Chatham, Mtramichu 

John Y. Thuroab, Esq., Resident Agent, St, John's, 

£. N. Kendall, Esq., B.N. Chief Commissioner, Fr^derieton, 

And in ENGLAND, by applying to 

Messrs. Anderson and Garrow Liverpool. 

Messrs. Price and Washbourn Ohucetter* 



Messrs. Garret and Gibbon ., Portsmouth, 

Messrs. Hawker and Sons Plymouth. 

Messrs. John Newmarch and Sons Hull, 

Messrs. William Newmarch and Co Newcastle. 

Messrs. Isaac Reston and Sons • • . Yarmouth. 

Messrs. Edward Everard and Sons Lynn Regis. 

Mr. H. W. Danson Bristol 

Robert Garrod, Esq Ipstneh. 


Messrs. George Aitchinson and Co Leith. 

John G. Stewart, Esq • Glasgow. 

John Begg, Esq., Marshall-street , Aberdeen. 


James Chalmers, Esq ,, Montrose. 

James Forster, Esq ^ Berwick-^m-Tweed. 


David Granger, Esq Beyhst. 

CShaughnessy, Esq • Oodway. 


Or of the numerous Ship-owners and Ship-brokers at 
any of the Out-Ports, engaged in the British Colonial 
Timber Trade. 

New Brunsmck Land Company* s OfficCy 

Mca-eh mhy 1837. 


Upon which the Crown Lands will be disposed of in 

New South Wales and Van Diemen^s Land. 

It has been determined by His Majesty^s Government 
that no land shall, . in future, be disposed of in New- 
South Wales or Van Diemen's Land, otherwise than by 


Public Sale, and it has therefore been deemed expedient 
to prepare, for the information of settlers^ the following 
summary of the rules which it has been thought fit to lay 
down for regulating the Sales of Land in those Colonies. 

1. A division of the whole territory into counties, 
hundreds, and parishes, is in progress. When that 
diyision shall be completed, each parish will comprise an 
area of about twenty-five square miles. 

2. All the lands in the Colony, not hitherto granted, 
and not appropriated for public purposes, will be put up 
for sale. The price will of course depend upon the 
quality of the land and its local situation, but no land 
will be sold below the rate ofSs, per acre. 

3. All persons proposing to purchase lands not 
advertized for sale, must transmit a written application 
to the Gk>vernor, in a certain prescribed form, which will 
be delivered ^t the Surveyor-General's Office, to all per- 
sons applying, on payment of the requisite fee of 28. 6£?. 

4. Those persons who are desirous of purchasing will be 
allowed to select, within certain defined limits, such por- 
tions of land as they may wish to acquire in that manner. 
These portions of land will be advertized for sale for 
three calendar months, and will then be sold to the 
highest bidder, provided that such bidding shall at least 
amount to the price fixed by Article 2. 

5. A deposit of £10 per cent, upon the whole value 
of the purchase must be paid down at the time of sale, 
and the remainder must be paid within one calendar 
month from the day of sale, previous to which the 
purchaser will not be put in possession of the land ; and 
in case of payment not being made within the prescribed 
period, the sale will be considered void and the deposit 

6. On pa^^ment of the money, » grant will be mad^ 


in fee-simpley to the purchaser, at the nominal quit-rent 
of a pepper-Qom. Previous to the delivery of audi 
grant, a fee of forty shillings will be payable to the 
Colonial Secretary for preparing the grant, and another 
fee of five shillings to the Register of the Supreme Court 
for enrolling it. , 

7. The land wQl generally be put up to sale in lots 
of one square mile, or 640 acres; but smaller lots than 
640 acres may, under particular circumstances, be pur- 
chased, on making application to the Grovemor, in 
writing, with fuU explanations of the reasons for which 
the parties wish to purchase a smaller quantity. 

8. The Crown reserves to itself the right of making 

and constructing such roads and bridges as may be 

necessary for public purposes in all lands purchased as 

above, and also to such indigenous timber, stone, and 

other materials, the produce of the land, as may be re* 

quired for making and keeping the said roads and brieves 

in repair, and for any other public works. The Crown 

fiirther reserves to itself all mines of precious metals. 

CoxoNiAL Office, 
^th January, 1831. 


Upon which the Crown Lands will he disposed of^ in 
the New Settlement in Western Australia, 

It has been determined by His Majesty's Government, 
that land shall in future be disposed of in Western Aus- 
tralia, upon the same principles as in New South Wales 
and Van Diemen's Land ; but the encouragement hitherto 
given to persons who might incur the expense of taking 
out labouring persons to the Colony, will not be entirely 
withdrawn at present, 


The following is a summary of the Rules which it has 
been thought fit to substitute for those dated the 20th of 
July, 1830. 

1. A division of the whole territory into counties, 
hundreds, and parishes, is in progress. When that divi- 
sion shall be completed, each parish will comprise an 
area of about twenty-five square miles. 

2. All the lands in the Colony not hitherto granted, 
and not appropriated for public purposes, will be put up 
to sale. The price will, of course, depend upon the 
quality of the land and its local situation, but no land 
will be sold below the rate of five shillings per acre. 

3. All persons proposing to purchase lands not adver- 
tized for sale, must transmit a written application to the 
Governor, in a certain prescribed form, which will be 
delivered at the Surveyor-General's Office to all persons 
applying, on payment of the requisite fee of two shillings 
and six-pence. 

4. Those persons who are desirous of purchasing, will 
be allowed to select, within certain defined limits, such 
portions of land as they may wish to acquire in that 
manner. These portions of land will be advertized for 
sale for three calendar months, and will then be sold to 
the highest bidder, provided that such bidding shall at 
least amount to the price fixed by Article 2. 

5. A deposit of 10 per cent, upon the whole value of 
the purchase must be paid down at the time of sale, and 
the remainder must be paid within one calendar month 
from the day of sale, previous to which the purchaser 
will not be put in possession of the land ; and in case of 
payment not being made within the prescribed period, 
the sale will be considered void, and the deposit forfeited. 

6. On payment of the money, a grant will be made, 
in fee simple, to the purchaser, at the nominal quit-rent 



of a pepper-corn. Previous to the defirery of such grant, 
a fee of forty shillings will be payable to the Colonial 
Secretary for preparing the grant, and another fee of five 
shillings for enrolling it. 

7. The land will generally be put up to sale in lots of 
one square mile, or 640 acres, but smaller lots than 640 
acres may, under particular circumstances, be purchased, 
on application to the Governor, in writing, with full 
explanations of the reasons for which the parties wish 
to purchase a smaller quantity. 

8. The Crown reserves to itself the right of making 
and constructing such roads and bridges as may be 
necessary for public purposes in all lands purchased as 
above, and also to such indigenous timber, stone, and 
other materials, the produce of the land, as may be re* 
quired for making and keeping the said roads and bridges 
in repair, and for any other public works. The Crown 
further reserves to itself all mines of precious metals. 

9. Those Settlers who may incur the expense of taking 
out labouring persons to the settlement, will be entitled 
to an abatement of the jMrice at which the land may have 
been purchased, at the rate of jE20 for the passage of 
every married labourer and his family. 

10. Persons claiming such an abatement from the 
price paid for land, will be held .responsible for any 
expense the Colonial Authorities may be compelled to 
incur for the maintenance (during the first year after 
their arrival) of the labourers in respect of whom it has 
been allowed. 


\Mt Marehy 1881. 

W. Lewis & Son, Printen, 81, Flirh-toiw, LondML